What Types Of Peptide Bioregulators Exist?

May 1, 2024

Peptide bioregulators constitute a diverse group of signaling molecules crucial for modulating cellular functions and maintaining organismal balance. These bioactive peptides, with their concise amino acid structures, play pivotal roles in modulating various physiological systems. Understanding the classification and types of peptide bioregulators is crucial for unraveling their diverse functions.

In this article we are going to unveil all you need to know about peptide bioregulators and their classification.

Natural vs Artificial Peptide Bioregulators

What sets natural peptide bioregulators apart from their artificial counterparts? Natural peptide bioregulators are derived from living organisms and possess structures that closely mimic endogenous peptides found in biological systems. Also, peptide tissue specific activity manifest in stimulation of protein synthesis in cells of those organs they were isolated from [5].

In contrast, artificial peptide bioregulators are synthetically designed molecules created in laboratory settings, often engineered to optimize specific therapeutic or research objectives.

There are 38 peptide bioregulators:

  • 21 natural ones – animal raw materials are used for production, as peptide bioregulators are the same for all mammals.

  • 17 artificial ones – they are made from amino acids isolated from plants. Artificial peptide bioregulators are shortened copies of the main peptide found in the extract. Their effect is not as long-lasting as natural ones, but it is achieved faster because the molecules are shorter and their concentration is significantly higher. According to Professor Khavinson, artificial peptides will become indispensable when humanity experiences a shortage of natural ones.

Natural Peptide
Bioregulators
Artificial Peptide Bioregulators
Structure
Length: 10-20 amino acids, of which 2-4 amino acids constitute the active site. In addition to the main bioregulator, peptides from other tissues of the organ are present.
Length: 2-7 amino acids. Contain only the main peptide bioregulator. Consist solely of active sites.
OriginDerived from animal raw materialsSynthesized in the laboratory from amino acids extracted from plant raw materials
ActionNoticeable effects appear approximately after a week and continue for about a year after cessation of intake.Noticeable effects occur within 2-3 days and continue for another six months after cessation of intake.
ApplicationRecommended at the end of the treatment courseRecommended at the beginning of the treatment course
PreparationsCytomaxes, peptide complexesCytogens and revilabs

Classification Of Products

Preparations with peptide bioregulators refer to pharmaceutical or biotechnological formulations containing peptide-based molecules designed to regulate biological processes. These preparations are developed to deliver specific peptide bioregulators to target tissues or cells in order to modulate physiological functions.

They can take various forms, including injectable solutions, oral tablets, transdermal patches, or topical creams, and are often formulated with excipients to enhance stability, bioavailability, and delivery of the active peptide molecules. These preparations play a crucial role in therapeutic interventions, research studies, and biotechnological applications aimed at harnessing the regulatory properties of peptide bioregulators.

Preparations with peptide bioregulators can be divided into 3 groups:

Cytomaxes – these are natural Khavinson peptides. There is a separate preparation in capsules for each organ. Some of them are available in the form of sublingual drops. There are also peptide complexes in solution for topical application. Each such complex contains peptides for a specific group of organs.

Cytogens – artificial Khavinson peptides in capsules. Each preparation contains peptides for a specific organ.

Revilab – peptide complexes containing up to 4 artificial peptides from different organs. There are two types: Revilab SL – sublingual drops, and Revilab ML – capsules.

What Are Cytamins, And How Do They Compare To Cytomaxes?

Cytamins are natural peptide bioregulators derived from the tissues and organs of calves and pigs using simplified extraction technology. They were developed by Khavinson in the early 1990s and were produced by him until 1996. Currently, they are owned by a different manufacturer.

By their composition, cytamins are complexes of natural origin containing proteins, nucleic acids, trace elements, minerals (copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, iron, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, etc.), and vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, retinol, tocopherol, etc.), presented in easily absorbable forms, which determines their nutritional and physiological value.

Cytamins and cytomaxes are two distinct types of peptide bioregulators developed by Khavinson with unique properties and applications. Cytamins are typically shorter peptide chains, while cytomaxes are longer and often more complex. They may differ in their mechanisms of action, bioavailability, and physiological effects. Below is a comparative table outlining their differences in composition and mode of action.

CytomaxesCytamins
Highly purified peptide bioregulators, devoid of any impurities. Consist of peptide chains up to 20 amino acids longNatural peptide bioregulators of simplified, coarse purification: nucleoprotein complexes with molecule lengths of up to 280 amino acids
They are so small that they can even penetrate through the skin, and when administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, they are entirely safe.Cytamins can only be administered orally because they cannot penetrate through the skin (their large molecules would inevitably cause allergies, up to fatal outcomes, if they enter the body without being “broken down” in the gastrointestinal tract).

To Sum up

From natural to artificial counterparts, the diverse landscape of peptide bioregulators offers immense potential for understanding and manipulating physiological processes. By elucidating their classifications, types, and roles, we gain valuable insights into their therapeutic applications and contributions to scientific research.

Bibliography

  1. Trofimova S., Khavinson V., Trofimov A., Ivko O., Borkovic D., Ivko X. The Effect of Short Peptides on Increasing the Reserve Capacity of the Human Body. // EC Clinical and Medical Case Reports. – 2022. – Vol. 5, Iss.11. – P. 98-105.
  2. Sokolova I.B., Ryzhak G.A., Khavinsov V.Kh. Functional Cumulation of the Influence of Vascular Peptide Bioregulator on Microcirculation in the Brain Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. // Advances in Gerontology. – 2018. – Vol. 8, N 2. – P. 158-162.
  3. Khavinson V.Kh., Kuznik B.I., Ryzhak G.A. Peptide Bioregulators: A New Class of Geroprorectors, Report 2. The Results of Clinical Trials. // Advances in Gerontology. – 2014. – Vol. 4, No 4. – P. 346-361.
  4. Khavinson V.Kh., Kuznik B.I., Ryzhak G.A. Peptide Bioregulators: A New Class of Geroprotectors. Message 1: Results of Experimental Studies. // Advances in Gerontology. – 2013. – Vol. 3, N 3. – P. 225-235.
  5. Anisimov V.N., Khavinson V.Kh. Peptide bioregulation of aging: results and prospects. // Biogerontology. – 2010. – N 11. – P. 139-149.
  6. Ryzhak G.A., Nekrasov P.A., Kiselev O.I., Khavinson V.Kh. Study of Protein Components of Natural Peptide Regulators. // Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. – 2003. – Vol. 135, N 1. – P. 52-54.

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