Medical Improvement of Brain Function. A Fascinating Book about Nootropics

Update –> 🥳 Crowd-Funding is Complete 🥳 The book about nootropics will be translated into English! With your help, we have raised 1,761$ out of 2,500$ and the rest will be added by CosmicNootropic 🚀 To our donors – thank you so much for your generous support and contributions!

Table of Contents:

Russian Books about Nootropics

We have seen a great deal of interest among our customers and fellow-Redditors about our previous post on the Soviet book about Nootropics by prof. Gennadiy Kovalev published in 1990. Following that post, several customers emailed us and suggested donating a certain amount of money so that we could have this book translated into English and they even asked us to send them hardcover copies of the book for collection purposes. 

We were amazed by the immense feedback and interest in this kind of information among nootropic enthusiasts! And we started searching and studying various Soviet and Russian books about nootropics to see if there might be some other interesting sources that are not available yet for the broad reading public, as a great deal of knowledge about nootropics & neuropharmacology was lost to the West & wider humanity after the collapse of the USSR. Unfortunately, many of the books are out of print now, so we had to search for copies in secondhand bookshops. 

In this search, we found and bought a book by another prominent Soviet and Russian professor Dr. Arushanian. The book was published in 2016 and it is called “Medical Improvement of the Cognitive Brain Function”. This book has a wider range of up-to-date information as the state of knowledge has moved on significantly in the last decades. This book is written for students of medical universities and it has information regarding many aspects of cognitive brain function. Following the initiative of translating this book into English, we got in touch with the author regarding copyrights and received his official consent for the translation of his book. 

Professor Arushanian and his Book about Nootropics
Professor Arushanian and his Book about Nootropics

In “Medical Improvement of the Cognitive Brain Function” Dr. Arushanian sets forth modern views on the organization of the brain’s cognitive function in Q&A form. Neuro- and pathophysiological and chemical mechanisms and aspects of cognitive impairments that follow brain aging, stroke, and TBI, Alzheimer’s neurodegenerative disease or Parkinsonism, and neuro-intoxication are discussed. Cellular and systemic processes which define the specific action of nootropics are described. The original classification of modern nootropics is suggested.

The idea of the book is to summarize years of the author’s own research that initially started with the study of psychostimulant effect and then antipsychotic action of neuroleptics (Arushanian EB, Belozertsev IuA (1978). Pharmacologic psycho-stimulation.) Subsequently, other groups of psychotropic medications caught the scientist’s attention including anti-depressants and tranquilizers (Arushanian EB, Beĭer EV (2007). Chronobiological similarity of the specific activity of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs.). And finally, the interest in nootropics became a natural course of events in the author’s pursuit to study the pharmacological treatment of mental disorders. Dr. Arushanian’s own research practice as well as the experience of his co-scientists made it possible to present this book in a convenient form so that the reader can quickly and easily obtain the needed information in a specific area. 

You can look through the Heading of the Book about Nootropics below

About the Author

Professor of Edward Arushanian
Prof. Edward Arushanian

Edward Arushanian is the Doctor of Medicine, professor, and the current Head of the Pharmacology faculty of the Stavropol State Medical University (Russia) and an acting member of the New York Academy of Sciences (since 1995). Dr. Arushanian was granted the Honored Scientist of Russia in 1995 as well as a number of other academic Soviet and Russian awards. His professional interest lies in neuropharmacology and neurophysiology. Dr. Arushanian is the author of 855 scientific papers including 27 monographs and about 150 foreign articles, some of them can be found in PubMed. He was the mentor of 9 doctoral theses. 

Dr. Edward Arushanian was born in 1934 in Vladivostok (Russia) and started his scientific path at the age of 19 at the Pavlov university in Saint-Petersburg. In his younger years, Edward Arushanian worked under the mentorship of Dr. Vladimir Zakusov, one of the most prominent medical academicians of the USSR who was the Head of the Zakusov Institute of Pharmacology where Semax, Selank, Noopept, and many other medications were discovered. 

Edward Arushanian during his 3rd year of university (1954)

After graduating with honors from the Pavlov university Edward Arushanian started his scientific career in a position of medical assistant at the Chita State Academy of Medicine (Chita, Russia) where he rose to the Head of the faculty of Pharmacology. In 1964 Dr. Arushanian organized a micro-neurophysiological laboratory which was the first in Siberia at that time. Over 13 years of work in Chita Dr. Arushanian developed a strong scientific and professoriate team, his faculty carried out research devoted to the study of physiological and pharmacological features of the basal ganglia of telencephalon with the assistance of colleagues from cross-disciplinary faculties: psychiatrist, neuropathologist, etc. which resulted in the development of the concept of the antipsychotic effect of neuroleptics, and new methods of treating parkinsonism and epilepsy. The materials were presented in international congresses in San-Francisco (1972), Helsinki (1975), and Paris (1978) at the IV International Congress of Pharmacologists where Dr. Arushanian was the main speaker.

Arushanian Nootropics Book
The lecture of Dr. Arushanian

In 1983 Dr. Arushanian left his high post at Chita university at the summit of his fame and regard and moved to the city of Stavropol to look after his elderly parents. There he was assigned the Head of the Pharmacology faculty of the Stavropol State Medical University. He had to start over and re-create the faculty: the team, the equipment, the research. Under the leadership of Professor Arushanian, the department launched a set of works to elaborate the unified scientific program “Chronopharmacology”. The task of the research team was to study the dependence of the pharmacological effect on the state of biological rhythms and the effect of drugs on the oscillatory processes in the body. 

For the first time, the hypothesis of the chronopharmacological effect of antidepressants was substantiated in experimental conditions. A new point of view on the origin of the anti-anxiety action of anxiolytic drugs was suggested. Chronobiological characteristics of the action of psychomotor stimulants like caffeine and amphetamines were presented. A whole group of papers was devoted to elucidating the contribution of the visual analyzer to the psychostimulant effect, and the possibility of direct pharmacological intervention in the function of the photosensitive apparatus of the retina was postulated. The obtained results were included in a whole complex of works published after 2000.

Dr. Arushanian described his relations with science in the following way: “Since my student years, Science has become one of the most exciting pursuits of my life. There is always a place for discovery if you avoid the tick-box approach. A creative insight may lead to big conclusions that give you joy, equal to the joy of creativity in art. This is what prompts me to do Science outside the box.

Arushanian Nootropics and his colleagues
The scientific staff of the Pharmacology faculty of the Stavropol State Medical University (2012)

Dr. Arushanian has respect for young students. His willingness to listen attentively and delve into any assumptions go hand in hand with high demands, without any discounts for youth or inexperience. Everyone is given the right to think and work on their own, but every one shall bear full responsibility for their own actions. 

K. S. Elbekyan, Doctor of Biology, Head of the Department of General and Biological Chemistry of the Stavropol State Medical University, Professor

His lectures raise students’ interest due to their unusual construction, clear logical structure, and excellent literary language. We have never had lecturers who could talk so smoothly and easily about such complex things, as pharmacology is by no means an easy subject. When I had to make the choice of specialization, I gave preference to pharmacology without any hesitation, largely thanks to the personality of Dr. Arushanian.

K.B. Ovanesov, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Pharmacology of the Stavropol State Medical University

I have known Dr. Arushanian for thirty years, and what fascinates me most about this man is that he never stops at what has been achieved, it is impossible to catch up with him, he is always ahead. 

A.V. Popov, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Pharmacology of the Stavropol State Medical University

I have not been within the walls of my alma mater for over 20 years, and the first question I asked, once setting my foot here again, was about the Professor. I was immensely glad that my dear Teacher, to whom I owe everything – my interest in science, my successful professional career, my understanding of life – not only continues to work, being the country’s leading specialist in the field of chronobiology, but looks even younger, and more full of spirits than I remembered him. It was important for me to feel his support and paternal guidance during my student years. I felt it even when I moved abroad. I continued and developed his scientific ideas on the other side of the earth. 

Orhiy Paul Botvev, professor at the University of Texas (USA), graduate of the Stavropol State Medical University

Heading of the Book about Nootropics

The heading of the Nootropics Book




  1. What are the main mechanisms of memory? 15
  2. What are the special features of hippocampus participation in the organization of cognitive activity? 22
  3. Is the corpus striatum interested in the organization of cognitive activity and what is its role in this process? 29
  4. What is the impact of the visual system on the brain’s cognitive activity?38
  5. Does cognition depend on the time factor? 45
  6. What are the aspects of the normal cerebral blood flow as a necessary condition for optimal cognitive function? 54
  7. What is the role of the brain’s cholinergic mechanisms in the organization of normal cognition?   60
  8. What is the function of the transmitter excitatory amino acids (EAA) in the cognitive processes? 68
  9. To what extent do the cognition processes depend on the state of GABA-eric mechanisms? 73
  10. What is the nature of the long-term potentiation (LTP) as an experimental analog of memory and an indicator of the brain’s functional plasticity? 82
  11. Can hormones be regarded as enhancers of cognitive processes? 89
  12. What are neurotrophic growth factors and how are they involved in the organization of cognitive processes? 99
  13. To what extent can the immune system be interested in the organization of cognitive processes? 104


  1. What are the special features of the origin and development of amnestic disorders in people? 111
  2. How does the disruption of the functionality of the corpus striatum affect cognition? 115
  3. Is cognitive impairment connected with vision deterioration? 121
  4. Does cognitive impairment depend on chronobiological disorders? 127
  5. What is the genesis of cognitive impairment and the mechanism of neuron injury in brain blood flow dysfunction? 133
  6. How and at what cost does cerebral hypoxia affect the cognitive processes?139
  7. How do free radical processes participate in the organic pathology of the brain?146
  8. What is the role of nitric oxide in normal and pathologically deteriorated cognition? 150
  9. How does the lack of cholinergic mechanisms in the brain affect cognitive dysfunction?155
  10. What are the consequences of the excessive increase in the activity of excitatory amino acids for brain function?159
  11. What is the role of neurotrophins (NT) in the protection of nerve cells from lesion?165
  12. Can the immune perturbation affect cognition?169
  13. What is apoptosis and what are the consequences of its exacerbation for the cognition?175


  1. How to reveal a medication nootropic activity by experiment and in the clinic? 181
  2. How does the action of nootropics look like on a model of long-term potentiation?188
  3. What is the impact of the neurochemical mechanisms of the hippocampus on the nootropic effect? 191
  4. How do nootropics influence vision?194
  5. Do nootropics have a chronotropic action? And if they do, is it connected with a specific action of substances? 198
  6. Do nootropics stipulate an anti-ischemic effect and to what extent does their specific action correlate with brain vasodilation? 205
  7. What is the impact of the anti-hypoxic activity on the nootropic effect? 212
  8. Does the nootropic activity depend on the antioxidant action of medical substances?218
  9. Is the stimulation of the central cholinergic transmission a mandatory component of the nootropic effect?223
  10. How do nootropics interact with excitatory amino acids (EAA) effects?229
  11. Do the dopaminergic mechanisms of the corpus striatum take part in a specific activity of nootropics?232
  12. What is the nature of GABA-eric compounds as nootropics?237
  13. To what extent are the ovarium estrogenic hormones responsible for cognition?243
  14. Can the epiphyseal hormone melatonin be considered a potential nootropic?249
  15. What is the nature of neuropeptides as nootropics?256
  16. Are neurotrophins (NT) involved in the realization of therapeutic qualities of nootropics?262
  17. Can we use the immunological path to treat cognitive disturbances including the treatment with nootropics?264
  18. Is the inhibition of apoptosis part of the specific activity of nootropics?267
  19. What does the whole range of nootropics’ inner mechanisms of action come down to?270


  1. What does the classification of modern nootropics look like?276
  2. What are the general pharmacological properties of nootropics?280
  3. Where the specific psychotropic activity of nootropics is applied?284
  4. When in the clinic can non-specific psychotropic and non-psychotropic properties of nootropics be applied? 290
  5. What are the adverse reactions of the treatment with nootropics?296




This book is suitable for medical students and medical advisers who specialize in neurology, psychiatry, experimental neurophysiology, and neurology. It may also be interesting for nootropic enthusiasts around the world who strive for research and information on the nootropics that they use.

The crowd-funding campaign for the book translation into English

Nootropics Books
My collection of books about Nootropics

In the process of reading the book of Dr. Arushanian, we came up with the idea of launching a full-scale crowd-funding campaign to translate this useful material into English and make it available for EVERYONE to read. 

Contained within are some important novel therapeutic approaches that proved valuable for the treatment of various ailments & conditions. The USSR made some important discoveries & advances in science. Preserving those and making those widely available in literary format is what we want to achieve by launching this campaign.

  • The cost of translation is 2,500USD
  • The bottom threshold for participation in crowd-funding is 15USD. 
  • We will send pdf copies to EVERYBODY who participates and makes a contribution to the process. 
  • We would also like to encourage your contributions by providing the first three people who donate the largest amount of money with the printed hardcover issue of the original and authentic USSR book about Nootropics by Dr. Kovalev from this post, and the 1st place – with the book of Dr. Arushanian.  

If during the crowd-funding the collected sum will turn out bigger than needed we would like to spend the rest on the translation of other Russian scientific books about Nootropics to make them publicly available. For example the Soviet book about Nootropics by Dr. Kovalev (that we initially wanted to translate) or another book of Dr. Arushanian depending on your request. 

Those of you who are willing to make a contribution to the crowd-funding process will be mentioned at the beginning of the final translated pdf version (upon consent). And we would like to make links to platforms that will be willing to support us in spreading the information about crowd-funding.  

I hope you support this initiative and help us make an impact in spreading the knowledge about Nootropics!

To leave a comment or indulge in the discussion please go to our post on Reddit.  

To make a donation follow the link:

GoFundMe CosmicNootropic Book

Sincerely Yours, 


CEO of CosmicNootropic

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