Dosage and administration
The dug is used orally, 15-20 minutes after meals, 2-3 times a day, preferably in the morning or afternoon. 300 mg capsules - 1-3 capsules per one time (0.3 – 0.9 gr). Maximum daily dose - 9 capsules (2.7 g). The treatment period - 1-4 months, sometimes up to 6-12 months. After 3-6 months the treatment can be performed again.
Hypersensitivity, acute severe diseases of kidneys, pregnancy (1st trimester), lactation, patient's age under 18 years (there are no clinical data of the drug use for younger patients).
In rare cases allergic reactions are possible (rhinitis, conjunctivitis, skin rash). In these cases a dose has to be decreased or treatment stopped. Sleeping impairments or somnolence, a noise in the head are short-lasting symptoms, the drug withdrawal is not necessary in these cases.
In case of overdose the side effects can increase. Treatment: charcoal, gastric lavage, symptomatic treatment.
Pantogam prolongs the effects of barbiturates, increases anticonvulsants effects, and prevents side effects of phenobarbitalum, carbamazepine, and neuroleptics. The efficiency of Pantogam Active® is increased in combination with glycine, or ethydronic acid. The drug potentiates the effect of local anesthetics (procaine).
Country of Manufacture: Russia
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Pantogam (Hopantenic acid) is a nootropic drug with anxiolytic action.
The molecule of hopantenic acid is obtained by substituting the beta-alanine moiety of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Unlike GABA itself, Pantogam can cross the blood-brain barrier and produce a GABAergic effect.
Pantogam was first synthesized in the 1950s by Japanese scientists. Since 1977 in Russia and since 1978 in Japan, it is used in medicine to treat various neurological disorders in children and adults.
Indications for use are:
- Organic brain syndrome;
- Cerebrovascular insufficiency;
- Extrapyramidal symptoms;
- Decreased mental and physical capacity;
- Neurogenic bladder dysfunction;
- Developmental delays.
Pantogam can be taken also by healthy individuals to increase mental and physical capacity and to relieve asthenic symptoms such as chronic fatigue. It also may improve memory and attention.
The drug has nootropic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects. Pantogam interacts with GABA-A, GABA-B, and dopamine D2 receptors and stimulates the acetylcholine synthesis.
Pantogam Active (D, L-Hopanthenic acid) is the racemic modification of the original drug; this modification was developed by Russian pharmaceutical company “Pik-Pharma” in 2008.
Calcium hopantenate has two active isomers with different pharmacology, and Pantogam Active has a higher content of L-hopantenic acid than Pantogam. Because of the different isomers ratio in these two drugs, they differ in both effects and efficacy.
Pantogam Active exhibits more pronounced anxiolytic, anti-amnesic and anticonvulsant effects and can be used long-term without forming an addiction.
- Katunina et al (2010) Pantogam active in the complex treatment of dystonic hyperkineses https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389940
- Poverennova et al (2011) Efficacy and tolerability of pantogam activ in patients with partial epilepsy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350425
- Kovalev et al (2012) Pantogam and pantogam active: qualitative and quantitative features of the interaction with neurotransmitter receptors in vitro https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677754
- Medvedev et al (2015) Augmented antipsychotic therapy with pantogam active in patients with schizophrenia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356612
- Smulevich et al (2015) Pantogam activ (D-, L-hopantenic acid) in the treatment of cognitive and anxiety disorders in patients with arterial hypertension https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978493
- Gekht et al (2016) Possible applications of rac-hopantenic acid in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28091501
- Baranov et al (2016) Effective treatment of patients with chronic heart failure and depressive disorders with nootropics drug pantogam activ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297752155_EFFECTIVE_TREATMENT_OF_PATIENTS_WITH_CHRONIC_HEART_FAILURE_AND_DEPRESSIVE_DISORDERS_WITH_NOOTROPICS_DRUG_PANTOGAM_ACTIV
- T Voronina, S Litvinova (2017) Pharmacological effects and clinical application of pantogam and pantogam active https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28884730
- Zavadenko et al (2017) Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: the results of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study of hopantenic acid https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28638029
- Tiganov et al (2017) A differential approach to the improvement of prevention and correction of neuroleptic side extrapyramidal disorders with pantogam activ in patients with schizophrenia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28374697
- O Ostroumova (2018) Possible applications of rac-hopantenic acid in the treatment of cognitive, anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with essential arterial hypertension https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30499507