Dosage and administration
Dosage: 5-10 mg, 2 - 3 times per day.
Course: 3 - 8 weeks. Before discontinuing taper the dose down.
It is possible to have 2-3 courses over 1 year period.
- Acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke
- Ischemic heart disease or acute arrhythmia
- Pregnancy and lactation
- Lactose intolerance
- Age below 18 years
Vinpocetine is usually well-tolerated and side effects are unlikely to occur. However, they may include:
- Labile/low blood pressure
- Dry mouth
- Allergic reactions
Vinpocetine does not interact with beta-blockers (Cloranolol, Pindolol), Clopamide, Glibenclamide, Digoxin, Acenocoumarol, Hydrochlorothiazide and Imipramine.
The drug potentiates the hypotensive effect of Methyldopa.
Despite the lack of data regarding interactions with drugs that have central, antiarrhythmic and anticoagulant actions, Vinpocetine should be used cautiously if coadministered with them.
Vinpocetine (ethyl apovincaminate) is a nootropic drug obtained from vincamine, an alkaloid of Vinca minor plant.
Vinpocetine was discovered in the 1960s in Hungary and it has a history of medicinal use since 1978. Currently, it is known under brand name Cavinton@, which is a #2 bestselling drug of one of the largest European pharmaceutical companies, Gedeon Richter.
Besides wide usage in medicine, ethyl apovincaminate is often seen in nootropic supplements stacks available on the U.S. market. It is also a component of a widely used in Russia combination drug on Vinpotropile@.
Vinpocetine is a cerebral vasodilator, thus its primary pharmacological effect is the improvement of cerebral blood flow, and the primary clinical use is the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders such as strokes and atherosclerosis. The vasodilatory action of Vinpocetine is mediated by a smooth muscle relaxation and a decrease of blood viscosity.
According to clinical trials and anecdotal experiences, Cavinton@ may be used to relieve tinnitus. This also applies to another cerebral vasodilator of herbal origin, Bilobil ® (Ginkgo Biloba extract).
Besides the beneficial effect on blood flow, the drug was shown to exert pronounced neuroprotective properties. Vinpocetine inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels with the blocking potency comparable to that of Phenytoin, an anticonvulsant drug.
- Dutov et al (1986) Use of cavinton in epilepsy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3751419
- Burtsev et al (1988) Effectiveness of using cavinton in patients of different ages with chronic forms of cerebrovascular diseases (clinico-rheographic research) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3364094
- B Kiss, E Karpati (1996) Mechanism of action of vinpocetine https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9082841
- Szakall et al (1998) Cerebral effects of a single dose of intravenous vinpocetine in chronic stroke patients: a PET study https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9780850
- S Szatmari, P Whitehouse (2003) Vinpocetine for cognitive impairment and dementia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12535455
- Protasov et al (2006) Cavinton forte treatment of cerebral vascular insufficiency in patients with coronary heart disease and arterial hypertension https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16921716
- Nyakas et al (2009) Neuroprotective effects of vinpocetine and its major metabolite cis-apovincaminic acid on NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in a rat entorhinal cortex lesion model https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19492990
- Afon’kin et al (2009) The new scheme of cavinton application to the treatment of chronic neurosensory loss of hearing https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20081798
- E Chukanova (2010) Efficacy of cavinton in the treatment of patients with chronic blood flow insufficiency. Russian multicenter clinical-epidemiological program "CALIPSO" https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21311488
- Jeon et al (2010) Vinpocetine inhibits NF-κB–dependent inflammation via an IKK-dependent but PDE-independent mechanism https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2906898/
- Patyar et al (2011) Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857073
- Cai et al (2013) Vinpocetine Attenuates Lipid Accumulation and Atherosclerosis Formation https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682500/
- A Ogunrin (2014) Effect of Vinpocetine (Cognitol™) on Cognitive Performances of a Nigerian Population https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160700/
- Alkuraishy et al (2014) Vinpocetine and Pyritinol: A New Model for Blood Rheological Modulation in Cerebrovascular Disorders—A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4274818/
- Ruiz-Miyazawa et al (2015) Vinpocetine Reduces Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Cytokine Production and NF-κB Activation in the Paw and Spinal Cord
- Manda et al (2015) Studies on Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Potential of Vinpocetine https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5533163/
- Lee et al (2015) Vinpocetine Inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae–Induced Upregulation of Mucin MUC5AC Expression via Induction of MKP-1 Phosphatase in the Pathogenesis of Otitis Media https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4456630/
- Wu et al (2017) Vinpocetine Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Remodeling by Inhibiting Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663637/
- Zhang et al (2018) An update on Vinpocetine: New discoveries and clinical implications https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5766389/