Apilak [royal jelly]
Apilak Grindeks is a medicine based on royal jelly, a honey bee secretion from the glands in the hypopharynx of nurse bees. This is a mixture comprising a number of important vitamins (C, B1, B2, B5, B6, B8, B12, H, folate and inositol), minerals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe and P), trace elements (Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, S, Si, Ni, Cr, As and Bi), 23 various amino acids, including the essential (such as histidine, valine, methionine and tryptophan) and other components (cholinesterase enzyme, acetylcholine, etc.).
The drug has tonic, antiviral and antitoxic effects. It improves metabolism and function of nervous and endocrine systems, helps fight fatigue and stimulates the immune system.
Apilak also speeds up the restoration period after ARVI. It increases the body’s nonspecific resistance towards various adverse factors of physical, chemical or biological origin; improves performance and mood; stimulates blood flow and metabolic functions of body cells and tissues, as well as wound healing processes like granulation tissue formation and epithelialization.
The drug is compatible with many other medications and dietary supplements.
- To activate the immune system in the recovery after illnesses;
- To stimulate lactation and improve metabolism during pregnancy and breastfeeding period;
- To treat neurotic disorders and hypotension. (as a complementary medication)
Storage Conditions and Shelf Life
Store at a dark place at a temperature not higher than 25 °C (77 °F).
Shelf life is 2 years.
Grindeks Joint-Stock Company
Formulation and Packaging
Tablets for sublingual administration, 10 mg.
Active ingredient: lyophilized royal jelly 10 mg. Inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate 133.1 mg, talc 4.4 mg, calcium stearate 1.4 mg and potato starch 1.1 mg.
Application and Dosage
To be administered sublingually. Put a tablet under your tongue. Let it dissolve and be absorbed.
Dosage is 1 tablet 3 times a day. Recommended length of treatment course is 10–15 days.
- Hypersensitivity to the components of the drug and bee secretion;
- Addison's disease;
- Children under 18 o.
Allergic response and sleep disorders.
In case of allergic response discontinue administration. In case of sleep disorders it is recommended to reduce the dosage or discontinue administration.
Should any side effects occur, consult a doctor.
No significant drug interaction was registered.
No cases of overdose were registered.
Hypoxen is an adaptogen developed in 1976 by a group of scientists in the Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad. The active compound of Hypoxen is Sodium salt of (poly-(2,5-dihydroxy-phenylene))-4-thiosulfonic acid. Hypoxenum and coenzyme Q10 have a similar structure.
Kasolin is a natural adaptogen stimulating sexual function that contains concentrated castoreum extract. Numerous active compounds of castoreum are included in the drug formulation in homeopathic doses. Namely:
- alcohols and phenols, including catechol and its derivatives;
- hydroquinone and chavicol;
- ketones, natural steroids and acids (benzoic, salicylic, cinnamic and p-Anisic);
- esters, resinous compounds and mineral components;
Melarena is an adaptogen, sedative and hypnotic drug based on a synthetic analogue of pineal hormone melatonin. It is used in case of jet lag, adjusts sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work schedule changes (shift-work disorder), and helps blind people establish a day and night cycle. It stabilises circadian rhythms.
It increases levels of gamma-Aminobutyric acid and serotonin in the midbrain and hypothalamus as it regulates the pyridoxal kinase which influences the synthesis of these compounds. The drug inhibits the secretion of gonadotropins and other pituitary gland hormones (corticotropin, thyroid stimulating hormone and somatotropin). It normalizes daily changes in body activity and temperature, improves brain activity and reduces irritability. Melarena has a positive effect on night sleep. It helps fall asleep, reduces night time awakenings and facilitates morning awakening.
The drug has also been proven effective in adapting to rapid change of time zones while travelling. It reduces stress and weather sensitivity and stabilises the neuroendocrine system. Melarena has immunomodulating and antioxidant properties. The drug is non-addictive. It has been shown that the natural production of melatonin declines with age, so it is better to use melatonin at an older age.
- P Pevet (2002) Melatonin https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181670/
- Malhotra et al (2004) The Therapeutic Potential of Melatonin: A Review of the Science https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1395802/
- Buscemi et al (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders: Summary
- Pandi-Perumal et al (2006) Melatonin: Nature's most versatile biological signal? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16817850
- Ferracioli-Oda et al (2013) Meta-analysis: melatonin for the treatment of primary sleep disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691095
- I Kostoglou-Athanassiou (2013) Therapeutic applications of melatonin https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3593297/
- Costello et al (2014) The effectiveness of melatonin for promoting healthy sleep: a rapid evidence assessment of the literature https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4273450/
- B Claustrat, J Leston (2015) Melatonin: Physiological effects in humans https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908646
- Masters et al (2015) Melatonin, the Hormone of Darkness: From Sleep Promotion to Ebola Treatment https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4334454/
- Tordjman et al (2017) Melatonin: Pharmacology, Functions and Therapeutic Benefits https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5405617/
- Xie et al (2017) A review of sleep disorders and melatonin https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28460563
- Meng et al (2017) Dietary Sources and Bioactivities of Melatonin https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5409706/
- N Zisapel (2018) New perspectives on the role of melatonin in human sleep, circadian rhythms and their regulation https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057895/
- Zwart et al (2018) Long-Term Melatonin Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults with Chronic Sleep Onset Insomnia and Late Melatonin Onset: Evaluation of Sleep Quality, Chronotype, and Lifestyle Factors Compared to Age-Related Randomly Selected Population Cohorts https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5872230/
Potassium Orotate® is a non-hormonal, anabolic agent, which is a potassium salt of carboxylic acid. It has a general stimulating effect on metabolic processes. It is a stimulant for the synthesis of nucleic acids involved in protein synthesis; it enhances reparative and regenerative processes in body tissues.
- Orotic acid is the “ancestor” of the substance in acids, synthesizing protein molecules. It was discovered in 1904 by the scientists Biscaro and Belloni. And in 1953, the scientists Manna and Hauge proved that vitamin B13 and orotic acid are identical. Orotic acid enhances the formation of albumin in the liver, especially in case of prolonged hypoxia that occurs in some diseases, such as heart failure. It improves the tolerance to cardiac glycosides and increases diuresis.
- Potassium is another active substance of the drug which activates the benefits of orotic acid. Potassium is present in the body of every person and is considered one of the most important minerals. It regulates water balance, stimulates muscle contraction and membrane potential. This substance is contained in the cells (80%) and in the intercellular space (20%), being constantly washed out of the cell cytoplasm. To maintain the required concentration, potassium needs to be injected back into the cells, which is carried out using sodium. Hypokalemia (potassium deficiency) develops in case of the potassium-sodium interaction failure because of the insufficient intake of the microelement in the body or its poor absorption. In this regard, it is necessary to compensate for the deficiency of the vital mineral by using various drugs, such as Potassium Orotate®.
Given the medical properties of the drug, it can be called a low-risk medication with a wide range of indications for use:
- Heart failure;
- Muscle dystrophy;
- Therapy of hepatic pathologies;
- Stimulation of anabolic process.
Sometimes bodybuilders also use Potassium Orotate® for their purposes: muscle growth, cutting training, prevention of pathologies of the heart and blood vessels against intensive steroid courses.
- Magne B6;
- Potassium Chloride.
Despite the fact that Potassium Orotate® is generally safe for the human body, in some cases its use is strictly prohibited:
- Hepatic failure and pathologies (both chronic and acute);
- Hypersensitivity to orotic acid and any of its derivatives;
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
During pregnancy and lactation, as well as in case of renal failure, doctors recommend using the medicine with extra caution, strictly adhering to the dosage. In some cases, the drug is prescribed for pregnant women, in particular, in case of severe swelling.
The drug is usually well tolerated. Though very rarely, side effect are manifested:
- Allergic reactions (might occur when the drug is discontinued or after taking any antihistamine);
- Dyspeptic disorder (the development of gout) is a clinically unproven phenomenon, but people with a tendency to such a pathology better refrain from taking Potassium Orotate®;
- Mild gastrointestinal disturbance (often manifested in the form of nausea and vomiting);
- Hepatic dystrophy (only if taken in large doses and accompanied by a diet with a small amount of animal protein).
There is no officially confirmed information about cases of overdose, but, according to athletes, skin manifestations in the form of itching, rash, as well as hyperkalemia are possible.
As for the positive interaction Potassium Orotate® goes well in combination with magnesium (cardiologists recommend taking such a combined course for cardiac pathologies). It reduces the body's intoxication of cardiac glycosides, increases the effectiveness of calcium and magnesium agents, and accelerates ion tolerance. If desired, Potassium Orotate® is perfectly supplemented by multivitamin complexes that will help increase energy potential and keep the body in good shape.
Potassium Orotate® can NOT be used as a medication for the potassium substitution treatment. Before using Potassium Orotate® for sports purposes, in particular for bodybuilding, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Trekresan (or Trekrezan) is an immunomodulating drug having pronounced adaptogenic properties. Its active ingredient is oxyethylammonium methylphenoxyacetate which is similar in structure to such human and plant molecules as choline, lecithine and indole-3-acetic acid.
The preparation was developed by professor M.G. Voronkov and his team of scientists of A. E. Favorsky Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry in 1972. Testing proved that the new substance is close to herbal and natural adaptogens in its effect.
- Shirinskiĭ et al (1993) The immunoactive properties of trekrezan https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8219991/
- Sabadyshin et al (1998) Effect of trekrezan on the lipid peroxidation in patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9777233
- Kolesnikova et al (2003) Trekrezan as a modulator of hemato- and immunopoieses https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14556517
- Voronkov et al (2004) Effect of trekrezan on immunogenesis under experimental conditions
- Zarubina et al (2006) Efficiency of trekrezan in experimental bronchopneumonia in rats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369940
- Zarubina et al (2006) Comparative study of the energy-stabilizing and immunotropic properties of trekrezan and polyoxidon on a bronchopulmonary inflammation model in rats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17153967
- Zarubina et al (2008) Metabolic effects of Trekrezan during adaptation of rats to intermittent hypoxic hypoxia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19024000
- Zarubina et al (2008) Functional and metabolic changes of healthy volunteers after cold exposure and administration of meteoadaptogen trekrezan https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18383733
- Voronkov et al (2010) Antisclerotic effect of Trekrezan and its possible mechanisms https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514866