Cortexin by Geropharm: book with selected research papers and drug composition

In this article, we will once again turn to the Russian literature on nootropic drugs. This time we want to talk about the book dedicated to Cortexin. This is a drug from the group of nootropics, a mixture of neuropeptide fractions, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, obtained from the cerebral cortex of cattle. It has a pronounced but subtle positive effect on the brain. 

The drug was developed in the Kirov Military Medical Academy (Saint Petersburg, Russia) and was initially aimed at treating defense officials. Since 1999, Cortexin has been produced industrially by the Russian company GeroPharm with a patented technology.

In 2005 GeroPharm published a book collecting works of 43 authors who have shared their studies on Cortexin in neurology, neurological intensive care, neurosurgery, neonatology, pediatrics, infectious diseases, psychiatry and toxicology. Below you will find the book heading. The main pages are in Russian but we can provide translation of some studies upon request. Please let us know if you want to look into any particular abstract.Also if you are interested in this kind of literature and knowledge take a read of our post about the book on nootropics by the distinguished Soviet and Russian professor Dr.Arushanian.

Cortexin composition

The cerebral cortex is a highly saturated “collection” of various chemical structures. Studies single out a wide variety of proteins in membrane fragments and intracellular structures, including such functionally important ones as calmodulin-adenylate cyclase, neurotransmitter enzymes, proteins of receptors and various kinases, etc., as well as vitamins, gangliosides, phospholipids, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium ions, and other elements.

Cortexin is a bovine brain lyophilisate. Although the analysis of the pharmacokinetics of the whole range of substances that make up Cortexin is not possible, in general chemical structure, it contains low molecular weight polypeptide fractions, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements. [17]

Polypeptides [16]

Polypeptides are compounds of 10-20 amino acids. They are small in size and weight (up to 10kDa). Lyophilization is used to obtain such a mixture. This is a special patented method in which the biological properties of substances are better preserved. Allergic reactions are said to be less likely with this method in comparison to conventional preparation of medicines.

Lyophilisate is obtained from the original substrates by a special “soft drying” of the substance. It is first frozen, and then placed in a vacuum chamber, where the drug transitions from a solid state to gas, bypassing the liquid state. Due to this, proteins and amino acids necessary for the manufacture of the medicine are not destroyed. This is important, since the function of the resulting neuropeptides depends on the integrity of their structure. In addition to polypeptides, the drug contains an auxiliary substance – glycine, which acts as a stabilizer.

Due to the small size of the polypeptides, the drug penetrates the barrier between blood and cerebrospinal fluid. CSF is a fluid that circulates around the brain. Thus, the drug reaches the nerve cells – neurons. Neurons communicate with each other using special substances called mediators. Mediators are peptides that stimulate or inhibit neighboring cells. Due to the fact that Cortexin has a similar structure, it triggers the release of the body’s own peptides. As a result, the balance between different fractions of mediators is optimized.

L-Aminoacids [2]

In particular, Cortexin peptides contain at least two stimulating amino acids – aspartic acid (446 nmol / mg) and glycine (298 nmol / mg). In addition to the mentioned above, the following amino acids are presented in Cortexin:

  • threonine (212 nmol / mg);
  • serine (268 nmol / mg);
  • glutamic acid (581 nmol / mg);
  • proline (187 nmol / mg);
  • alanine (346 nmol / mg);
  • valine (240 nmol / mg);
  • isoleucine (356 nmol / mg);
  • tyrosine (109 nmol / mg);
  • phenylalanine (162 nmol / mg);
  • histidine (116 nmol / mg);
  • lysine (253 nmol / mg);
  • arginine and other amino acids (202 nmol / mg).

Thus, the share of aspartic acid accounts for up to 12%, and glutamic acid – about 15% of the total amino acid content of Cortexin. The drug does not contain methionine.

Vitamins [2]

Cortexin contains a number of vitamins, in particular:

Water-soluble:

  • thiamine (vitamin B1) – 0.08 μg / 10 mg,
  • riboflavin (vitamin B2) – 0.03 μg / 10 mg,
  • niacin (vitamin B3, vitamin PP, niacin) – 0.05 μg / 10 mg;

Fat-soluble:

  • retinol (vitamin A) – 0.011 μg / 10 mg,
  • alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) – 0.007 mcg / 10 mg.

Microelements [2]

In addition to five essential vitamins, Cortexin contains many minerals (macro- and microelements):

  • copper (Cu): 0.2129 μg / 10 mg;
  • iron (Fe): 2.26 μg / 10 mg;
  • calcium (Ca): 22.93 μg / 10 mg;
  • magnesium (Mg): 8.5 μg / 10 mg;
  • potassium (K): 19.83 μg / 10 mg;
  • sodium (Na): 643.2 μg / 10 mg;
  • sulfur (S): 152.65 μg / 10 mg;
  • phosphorus (P): 91.95 μg / 10 mg;
  • zinc (Zn): 4.73 μg / 10 mg;
  • molybdenum (Mb): 0.0203 μg / 10 mg;
  • cobalt (Co): 0.0044 μg / 10 mg;
  • manganese (Mn): 0.0061 μg / 10 mg;
  • selenium (Se): 0.0745 μg / 10 mg;
  • aluminum (Al): 0.3104 μg / 10 mg;
  • lithium (Li): 0.0340 μg / 10 mg. 

There is reason to believe that the positive effects of the drug are explained not only by the action of the polypeptides of the indicated amino acid composition, but also by the neurochemical activity of macro- and microelements contained in the drug, as well as vitamins A, E, B1 and PP. Cortexin has many positive effects, therefore it is used in the treatment of many neurological diseases. The drug will be useful both in the acute phase of the disease and in the recovery period.

cortexin-categories-2

According to the manufacturer, the drug has shown the following effects:

  • Neuroprotective – protects nerve cells from aggressive influences: microbes, toxins, lack of oxygen and nutrients;
  • Regenerative – accelerates the healing of damaged body tissues;
  • Metabolic – improves oxygen supply and neuronal nutrition;
  • Antioxidant – slows down the processes of fat peroxidation, during which free radicals are formed, the excess of which damages tissues. Due to this mechanism, the resistance of neurons to a lack of oxygen increases.
  • Antiepileptic – reduces the likelihood of developing epileptic seizures. This is possible due to the ability of the drug to normalize the ratio between excitatory and inhibitory substances in the central nervous system. Thus, the risk of developing areas of excessive excitement, which represent the basis of epileptic seizures, is reduced.
  • Nootropic – positive effect on cognitive functions: memory, attention and concentration. These processes are based on the interaction of nerve cells with each other. Cortexin is known to accelerate this interaction.

Indications for the Use of Cortexin

Cortexin is most often used in the treatment of the following pathological conditions:

  • Cerebrovascular diseases (including stroke and its consequences);
  • Inflammatory brain diseases (including neuroborreliosis, encephalitis, myelitis, and encephalomyelitis);
  • Epilepsy;
  • Traumatic brain injury and its consequences;
  • Cognitive disorders (dementia, delirium, mental retardation, etc.).

There is detailed information devoted to stroke and TBI in the articles on Cerebrolysin and Semax 1% nasal drops. In this post we’d like to focus more on encephalopathy and cognitive disorders. 

Cognitive Impairment

cognitive impairment

Cognitive impairment is a disruption in the cognitive functioning of the central nervous system, which include higher cerebral activity, higher mental and cognitive functions – these are processes in the brain, with the help of which the study of the surrounding world and analysis of the incoming information takes place.

There are three degrees of severity of cognitive impairment:

1)  Severe disorder of cognitive processes, leading to the inability of a person to conduct normal activities, work and control themselves. Examples of such disorders are dementia and delirium.

2) Medium disorders – significant changes in higher brain functions. Patients can serve their own basic physiological needs and do not experience problems when communicating with others. Without proper treatment, there is a high risk of worsening the condition to a severe degree.

3) Mild disorders – a slight impairment of cognitive processes, in which it is possible to carry out normal daily activities, and perform professional and household duties. Such disorders occur in many diseases and are not always caused by damage to nerve structures.

Dementia

Dementia is an acquired long-term decline in higher mental functions. Elderly people over 65 are affected by dementia more often than other groups of patients.

The causes of dementia include various conditions in which neurons are damaged:

  • Vascular lesions of the nervous system – stroke and cerebral infarction, discirculatory encephalopathy;
  • Infections – HIV, measles, rubella, mumps, flu;
  • Neurodegenerative diseases – Pick’s, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, frontotemporal degeneration;
  • Oncology;
  • Cerebrospinal fluid circulation disorders;
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI);
  • Intoxication with alcohol, heavy metal salts, narcotic and other psychoactive substances.

Dementia is characterized by simultaneous impairment of several cognitive functions. First usually deteriorates memory – recent memories, then older ones. After that, problems with purposeful actions and perception of the surrounding world may occur. Then speech disorders and inability to concentrate usually top up on that. 

Another hallmark of dementia is emotional and mental impairment. The most common symptoms are:

  • Apathy – a decrease in initiative, lack of desire to do something;
  • Irritability and aggressiveness, or lethargy and general weakness;
  • Untidiness – loss of interest in one’s appearance;
  • Sleep inversion – the patient sleeps during the day and is active at night;
  • Eating disorders – a change in taste preferences, a decrease or increase in hunger, pathological oral habits: an obsessive desire to take something in the mouth, constant smacking and chewing;
  • Delirium, visual and auditory hallucinations etc.

People with dementia are unable to work properly, communicate with others and perform the household duties. Patients cannot meet their basic physiological needs. 

Depressive Pseudodementia

Depressive pseudodementia is a deterioration in higher nervous activity because of a depressive state.

The main difference between pseudodementia and true dementia is that the lesions of the nervous system are of a functional nature. This means that neurons do not die, but are in a depressed state. After normalization of the emotional and mental state of the patient (often with help of medications), all symptoms usually disappear. 

Diagnosis of Dementia

The most important diagnostic criterion is a disorder of higher nervous activity. Deterioration of memory, attention or speech is a reason to pay extra attention to one’s health. During the physical examination, doctors conduct special tests and use questionnaires to identify cognitive impairments. Instrumental and laboratory diagnostic methods are not very informative, although in some cases they can reveal the causes of the disease.

Cognitive Impairment Treatment

Treatment of all cognitive impairments is aimed at eliminating the cause of this condition, be it a stroke, TBI, or others. Another area of therapy is the restoration of higher brain functions to the original level.

In 2012, the results of a multicenter, randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of Cortexin in the acute and early recovery period of hemispheric ischemic stroke, which is one of the common causes of cognitive complications, were published. The study included more than 270 patients and was carried out in 7 regional specialized centers for the treatment of vascular pathology. The high efficacy and safety of repeated courses of Cortexin has been proven in comparison with a single course of treatment and with placebo. Cortexin application in two courses 10 days each contributed to both the restoration of daily activity and a more complete recovery of the patients’ cognitive functions. This study confirms the high rehabilitation potential of the drug. [5

It is important to note that treatment of cognitive impairment must be comprehensive. The patient needs special gymnastics, massages, classes with therapists. The support of family and friends is of great importance for the normalization of the patient’s mental status. Cognitive impairment is not an autonomous disease. This is a symptom of other diseases. Therefore, when disorders of higher nervous functions appear, it is advised to consult a doctor as soon as possible in order to identify the cause of such changes. The sooner the diagnosis is made, the faster the treatment will begin and the more chances there are for the patient to recover their health.

The following medical methods are commonly included in the treatment:

  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors;
  • Reversible blockers of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors;
  • Neuroleptics;
  • Metabolic and vasoactive drugs;
  • Nootropics.

Cortexin is a nootropic agent. It improves the interaction between neurons by normalizing the ratio between excitatory and inhibitory mediators. [2] The recommended course of administration is 10 days, 10 mg daily in the morning. For more information on the method of using Cortexin and the recommended dosages, go to this section of the article.

Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy is the general name for a group of different conditions in which non-inflammatory brain damage occurs. The role of the main damaging factor is a metabolic disorder of nerve cells, which leads to their death. There are 2 types of encephalopathy: perinatal and acquired. 

Perinatal encephalopathy is a disorder in the structure of the brain that occurs during the period from 28 weeks of intrauterine growth till the first week of life. Сlinical manifestations of this condition are noticeable from birth.

Acquired encephalopathy is more common in adults. It is usually secondary to other diseases. Risk factors for the appearance of this pathology can be:

  • Infectious diseases;
  • TBI;
  • Exposure to endotoxins (in acute pancreatitis, hepatic and renal failure);
  • High blood pressure;
  • Sedentary lifestyle and bad habits;
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular or respiratory system;
  • Hereditary predisposition;
  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • Long-term lack of vitamins, proteins, fats or carbohydrates, etc.

The complexity of diagnosis lies in the fact that at the initial stages of the disease there are no specific symptoms by which it can be suspected. To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive examination: laboratory analyzes of biological fluids, instrumental diagnostics (MRI, Echoencephalography, etc.), as well as consult with specialists (therapist, neurologist, endocrinologist).

Encephalopathy Treatment

The treatment is aimed at eliminating the disease that caused this condition. Depending on the type and severity of the disease, the treatment may include:

  • Medication methods;
  • Surgical intervention;
  • Physiotherapy;
  • Antiepileptic drugs;
  • Anticoagulants and antiplatelet medicinal products;
  • Antihypoxants;
  • Nootropics and peptide drugs incl. Cortexin [4].

In 2013 Russian researchers conducted a nation-wide screening of the cognitive and affective disorders in the process of Cortexin therapy of discirculatory encephalopathy (DEP). 50,000 patients diagnosed with DEP developed against the background of arterial hypertension and/or atherosclerosis received Cortexin in the dosage of 10 mg/daily for 10 days. The results of the study showed regression of focal neurological symptoms, improvement of cognitive functions in neuropsychological tests, normalization of emotional state of patients and a decrease in the level of depression. [17]

Be attentive to your health and the health of your loved ones. If symptoms of the disease are noted in the initial stages, there are more chances of recovery.

Cortexin should be used only for appropriate indications as prescribed by the attending physician. Always follow the dosage indicated in the instructions to achieve the needed effect and to minimize the possibility of adverse reactions. 

FAQs about Cortexin

Is high blood pressure a contraindication to the use of Cortexin?

Cortexin is used in the treatment of cerebral circulation disorders, asthenic conditions, and alcohol intoxication. These pathologies are often associated with the presence of arterial hypertension in the patient, in connection with which this question arises.

In some clinical studies, a slight hypotensive effect of Cortexin was observed [6]. Information about the undesirable effects of the drug in this category of patients has not been reported. In addition, at increased pressure, many tissues are in a state of hypoxia, and Cortexin increases resistance to this type of negative effect on the body.

Can I be allergic to Cortexin?

Cortexin is a medicinal product, which means that it, like many other drugs, has certain side effects. It should be noted that the incidence of side effects in the case of Cortexin is usually low. With strict adherence to medical prescriptions (dosage, frequency of intake, etc.), undesirable reactions are not likely. There are no data on specific side effects of Cortexin. The tissue specificity of the molecular mechanisms of the drug is extremely important in this sense. [11]

To reduce the possibility of developing allergic reactions, during the manufacture of Cortexin, chemical, thermal and vacuum treatment of the original substrate occurs. However, Cortexin is a freeze-dried cattle cerebral cortex, that is, a drug of animal origin. This means that there is still a risk of developing allergic reactions. The degree of their severity can be different: from a minor rash and mild stool disorder to generalized edema and anaphylactic shock. Therefore, the use of any drugs (especially of animal or plant origin) in persons with a history of allergies should always be carried out with the utmost caution after consulting an allergist. The patient should pay close attention to the body sensations that may appear after the first injection.

The development of adverse reactions was not recorded when administering Cortexin to children.[9]

Cortexin and vaccination?

After the introduction of antigens into the body, the immune system is supposed to produce antibodies that will protect it when it encounters pathogens of infectious diseases. In this situation, the body may experience cross-reactions to the introduction of other substances, that is, the risk of allergic reactions increases. 

Cases of development of negative effects with simultaneous vaccination and Cortexin have not been recorded. However, there are some general recommendations:

● If possible, reduce any additional antigenic load on the body a few days before and after the vaccination (do not eat exotic food, do not take new medications).

● Avoid contact with possible allergens.

● If it is necessary to inject the medicine and administer the vaccination on the same day, make injections in different places (for example, in the right forearm and left thigh), having previously taken antiallergic drugs to prevent adverse reactions. 

If the correct application technique is followed, the risk of adverse reactions is minimal. However, we advise you to pay close attention to the patient’s condition for 30 minutes after the injection. If any suspicious symptoms appear, seek specialized medical assistance. 

Is Cortexin compatible with Alcohol? 

Cortexin is widely used to treat post-withdrawal disorders (severe hangover), chronic alcohol intoxication and alcoholic encephalopathy. Also, with the simultaneous use of alcohol and Cortexin, the damaging effect on the brain decreases and, in general, the toxic effect of alcohol decreases. However, it is worth noting that the maximum effect of the treatment with Cortexin will develop by the end of the course (on days 7-8), while the effect of alcohol begins in about 30 minutes. Besides, any use of alcohol may reduce the effectiveness of the therapy and increase the risk of adverse reactions. 

Thus, we can conclude that Cortexin can reduce the damaging effect of alcohol on the brain, both with their simultaneous use and with the use of the drug over time. However, the purposeful simultaneous use of Cortexin and alcohol is undesirable, since this reduces the therapeutic effect of the drug.

Cortexin Compatibility with Other Medicines

Speaking of any medicine, the question arises of how it will interact with other drugs. It depends on whether it is possible to use the drug as part of a complex therapy and whether it can be used to treat a person with several different diseases.

Cortexin is a nootropic used to treat lesions of the nervous system. The list of indications for its use is very large and includes many diseases. Usually complex therapy is most effective in such cases. [13

These are the drugs that Cortexin is most often used with [16]:

Combinations of these drugs are commonly used to treat neurological conditions. Let’s take a closer look at the interaction of Cortexin with each of these drugs.

Which one is Better: Cortexin or Mexidol?

Cortexin and Mexidol

Both drugs are produced in Russia and showed efficiency in the treatment of diseases associated with damage to nerve structures: cognitive disorders, encephalopathy, cerebral circulation disorders (heart attack, ischemia) etc.

Both Cortexin and Mexidol have a proven positive effect in the treatment of alcohol intoxication, relief of withdrawal symptoms and post-withdrawal states. [3] [15]

The area of application of Cortexin is shifted towards purely neurological diseases, and Mexidol – towards the consequences of damage to body tissues of various nature. The combined use of the two drugs increases the overall positive effect. [13]

Which one is Better: Cortexin or Cerebrolysin?

Cortexin and Cerebrolysin

Both drugs have a similar composition – they are polypeptides of the cerebral cortex of animals. However, there is a difference: Cortexin has a significantly larger amount of peptide fractions (90%) and fewer amino acids (10%). [17] While the former is produced from pig brains only, the latter is extracted mostly from young horned cattle cerebral cortex by acetic acid extraction. 

Both drugs are successfully used in the treatment of neurological diseases. Their use in the recovery period after a damaging effect on the brain accelerates the recovery processes and promotes rapid rehabilitation. But according to the Cortexin manufacturer, it is preferred for depressive disorders, increased excitability, and fatigue while Cerebrolysin is best for the treatment of dementia of various etiologies. [16]

No adverse reactions were found when using Cortexin, except from rare cases of allergy. It should be noted that the list of side reactions of Cerebrolysin is more extensive (official instruction). 

Experts do not consider it rational to combine these drugs, but quite often recommend to use them in succession or alternate the courses. 

There is a post in the CosmicNootropic blog containing a video-interview with a medical professional talking about the differences between Cortexin and Cerebrolysin. The video is translated into English.

Can I use Cortexin and Ceraxon at the same time?

Ceraxon is also a nootropic. However, its mechanism of action is completely different. Ceraxon is a precursor substance for fats, from which cell membranes, including nerve membranes, are built. Due to this property, the use of this drug reduces the damaging effects on nerve cells and helps to accelerate their recovery.

With the simultaneous use of Cortexin and Ceraxon, the overall positive effect is enhanced. [12]

Can I use Cortexin and Pantogam at the same time?

Pantogam is a medicine that contains hopantenic acid. This acid is a nootropic with a mild stimulating effect, which is manifested by the acceleration of the processes occurring in the brain. This ensures the normalization of the brain processes and contributes to the rapid restoration of nerve structures when they are damaged.

According to information from the manufacturer, with the simultaneous administration of Cortexin and Pantogam, the therapeutic effect will be more pronounced. [16]

Can Cortexin and Cavinton be used at the same time?

Cavinton is also a nootropic and has several indications for use. Firstly, this drug improves blood supply to the brain by reducing blood viscosity and accelerating the process of oxygen transfer to the nerve cells. Secondly, Cavinton reduces the damaging action of excitatory amino acids on nerve cells, providing a neuroprotective effect. 

According to the producer the simultaneous administration of Cortexin and Cavinton will have a more pronounced positive effect than their separate use. [16]

GEROPHARM, Cortexin Producer 

Cortexin is manufactured by GeroPharm. It is a large Russian pharmaceutical organization that has existed since 2001.

GeroPharm works in different directions: implementation of projects under the programs of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, launching its own production lines and carrying out pharmaceutical activities that comply with the latest international and Russian quality and safety standards.

GeroPharm Cortexin producer

The company has representative offices in 13 countries and across Russia. GeroPharm has the following divisions:

  • GeroPharmLLC is the central department engaged in the production and distribution of medicines, as well as responsible for their quality control in accordance with international standards (GMP).
  • CJSC “Pharm-Holding” is a research department that develops new substances with medicinal properties. Here, a full range of drug development takes place, starting from the search for a chemical formula and ending with the registration of received drugs. 

The company product portfolio includes:

  • Neurology (Cortexin, Recognan, Levetinol, Memantinol).
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology (Pineamin, Epifamin).
  • Ophthalmology (Retinalamin).
  • Endocrinology (Rinsulin).

Besides it is worth noting that it was GeroPharm that launched the only full-cycle industrial production of synthetic insulin in Russia. 

GeroPharm is one of the largest investors in the field of technological innovation and R&D. The company has repeatedly become a laureate and prize-winner of various awards, contests and ratings:

  • Prize in the field of import substitution “Priority” (2015),
  • Competition “Leader of the Russian business” (2016),
  • Competition “Development Award” (2016),
  • Gazelle business (2016, 2017),
  • Enterprise of the Year (2016, 2017),
  • EY Entrepreneur of the Year (2017),
  • RBC award (2017). 

In addition, most of the activities are aimed at implementing social programs.

GeroPharm Vladimir Putin
The president of the Russian Federation at GeroPharm facilities

Anecdotal References about Cortexin

There are many discussions on the effectiveness of Cortexin in comparison to other nootropics like Cerebrolysin. Opinions differ but it can be said that there are positive reviews on both. Since this article is devoted to Cortexin we’d like to focus on its reviews. For example there is a good Cortexin experience on Reddit in regards to cognitive improvement. 

Cortexin is known to help recover from drug- and other additions. Many nootropic enthusiasts use it for these purposes in combination with other medications. Doses and stack combinations are actively discussed on reddit. Here is one of the recent posts. Another post is about stack advice for nicotine addiction. 

There are some references about Cortexin on the product page at CosmicNootropic. Also according to this report Cortexin is on the list of TOP 10 most popular nootropics in Russia. You may get yourself familiar with Cortexin experience reviews on a Russian popular platform Otzovik.ru


The official drug sheet of Cortexin


The use of any drug should always be justified. Thoughtless use of medicines can cause harm. Only a doctor has the right to prescribe medication.

Bibliography

  1. Tsyganov VN, Bogoslovskiĭ MM (2004). Influence of cortexin on memory and attention. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15537099/
  2. Skoromets AA, Dyakonov MM (2005). Cortexin. Five years of experience in Russian neurology. https://geropharm-ru.translate.goog/portfolio/nauchnyye-publikatsii?_x_tr_sl=ru&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=ru&_x_tr_pto=nui
  3. Alekhnovich AV, Ivanov VB et al (2005). Cortexin use in cases of acute intoxication with psychopharmacological substances. https://geropharm.ru/uploads/multimedia/parsed/pdf/ae8fbb86a1d82026adcd7a3befdec21c.pdf
  4. Solov’ev AG, Elistratova TV (2010). Effectiveness of cortexin in the complex treatment of patients with chronic alcohol encephalopathy and polyneuropathy. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20517210/
  5. Stakhovskaya LV, Meshkova KS et al (2012). A multicenter, randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of Cortexin in the acute and early recovery period of hemispheric ischemic stroke. https://geropharm.ru/uploads/multimedia/parsed/pdf/4cf771e40cf71a28d1b81c94412d1c29.pdf
  6. Podsonnaya IV, Efremushkin GG (2016). The efficiency of cortexin in hypertensive patients exposed to radiation. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/effektivnost-korteksina-pri-lechenii-arterialnoy-gipertenzii-u-bolnyh-podvergshihsya-ioniziruyuschemu-izlucheniyu-v-anamneze
  7. Kholin AA, Zavadenko NN et al (2017). Peptidergic nootropic therapy in cerebral palsy associated with epilepsy. https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro20171179137-42
  8. Fedin AI (2018). The efficacy of Cortexin and Memantinol (Memantine) in the treatment of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro20181181130-36
  9. Zykov VP, Serebrennikova EB et al (2018). Results of a multicenter study on the efficacy of cortexin in treatment of cognitive dysfunction in children. https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro20181183127-31
  10. Bogacheva TE, Kalacheva AG et al (2018). Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of Cerebrolysin in the experiment. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/neyroprotektornoe-i-protivosudorozhnoe-deystvie-tserebrolizina-v-eksperimente
  11. Gulyaeva NV (2019). Molecular mechanisms of brain peptide-containing drugs: cortexin. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11055-019-00839-4
  12. Belova LA, Mashin VV et al (2019). A multicenter observation study of the efficacy of cortexin and recognan (citicoline) in the treatment of cognitive impairments in chronic cerebrovascular pathology. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30874524/
  13. Safronova MN, Kovalenko AV, Mizurkina OA (2019). Combined neuroprotection in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31464285/
  14. Khabirov FA, Khaibullin TI et al (2020). Comparison of the efficacy of Cellex and Cortexin in patients in the early recovery period of ischemic stroke. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33449527/
  15. Volchegorskii IA, Izarovskii BV et al (2021). An effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives on the time of reduction of anxiety and depression symptoms in alcohol withdrawal treatment. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34693691/
  16. Official product web-page: https://korteksin.ru
  17. Gomazkov OA (2015). Cortexin: molecular mechanisms and targets of neuroprotective activity. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26356623/

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