Noopept Review 2022 – Dosage, Benefits & Side Effects, Mode of Action, Intended Uses, Research

In this article, you will learn about Noopept, a nootropic supplement that is known for improving cognitive performance. Read the full Noopept review – Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Mode of Action as well as the drug history and research.

What is Noopept?

Noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester – active ingredient) is a Russian over-the-counter nootropic drug with a long history that is used for brain health. It was developed in the early 1990s and a bit later it started gaining popularity in Western countries. Noopept is a nootropic agent that stimulates the production of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It also activates AMPA and NMDA receptors, facilitating transmission between neurons.

The Noopept effect is physiological to the human body, as it is based on the formation of an active compound cyclopropyl glycine, which is naturally occurring in the brain. This substance is also called the “memory peptide”.

noopept-categories-2

Noopept Review – Table of Contents:

Noopept may be particularly beneficial for patients recovering from brain trauma. The Department and Clinic of Nervous Diseases of the Military Medical Academy (St. Petersburg, Russia) assessed the effectiveness and safety of Noopept in patients with post-traumatic mild cognitive disorders. A comprehensive analysis of the results of neuropsychological methods and scales used in the study showed that the use of the drug led to a significant improvement in a number of cognitive indicators within 30 days after the start of treatment.

During the 2nd month of the drug administration, the improvement became less obvious. Although it was characterized by a persisting tendency toward normalization. In general, it is reasonable to believe that this phenomenon is due to the presence of the so-called “saturation”, which, however, is not a reason to reduce the treatment time. The Noopept drug was recommended for use in patients with mild concussion or contusion accompanied by cognitive impairment in the residual period. [10]

Noopept Video Review

How does Noopept Work?

Noopept has nootropic and neuroprotective properties. It improves learning ability and memory. Noopept exerts effects on all processing phases: initial processing of information -> consolidation -> extraction. It prevents the development of amnesia caused by electric shock, blockade of central cholinergic structures, glutamatergic receptor systems, and deprivation of the paradoxical phase of sleep.

The mechanism of action of Noopept has been studied since the time of its synthesis. It was found that the drug enhances the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus [7], exhibits choline-positive properties at the behavioral and neuronal levels [12], reduces oxidative stress, and enhances the activity of antioxidant systems [4], and inhibits stress-induced kinases pSAPK/JNK and pERK1 [9].

According to official information from the manufacturer, Noopept acts on specific binding sites in the cerebral cortex and forms cycloprolylglycine, which is similar in structure to an endogenous cyclic dipeptide with antiamnestic activity [13]. 

The neuroprotective effect is provided by weakening the neurotoxic effect of glutamates, counteracting the accumulation of intracellular calcium, and reducing the formation of free radicals and the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. This increases the resistance of the brain tissue to damaging influences (neurotrauma, hypoxia, electroconvulsive, toxic) and weakens the degree of damage to brain neurons. [14]

Noopept acts as an antioxidant. And it has an antagonistic effect if there is an excess of calcium. Noopept also improves the rheological properties of the blood, possessing antiaggregational, fibrinolytic, and anticoagulant properties.

The nootropic effect of the drug is associated with the formation of cycloprolylglycine, structurally similar to the endogenous cyclic dipeptide with its antiamnestic activity, as well as the presence of cholinopositive action. Noopept increases the amplitude of transcallosal response (TCR), facilitating associative connections between the cerebral hemispheres in cortical areas. The drug promotes the restoration of memory and other cognitive functions disrupted by damaging effects like brain trauma, local and global ischemia, and prenatal injuries (alcohol, hypoxia). The nootropic effect of the supplement is selective, i.e. there is no psychostimulatory, sedative action, it does not disturb the coordination of movements, and there is no muscle relaxant action. 

Besides Noopept normalizes the vegetative system, and reduces headaches, orthostatic disorders, and tachycardia.

What is the Half-life of Noopept?

N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester is the active ingredient of the neuroprotective agent Noopept. It is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, unchanged enters the systemic bloodstream, and penetrates the blood-brain barrier. The substance is detected at higher concentrations in the brain than in the blood. It takes on average 15 minutes to reach the maximum concentration.

The half-life in blood plasma is around 30 minutes. One part of the drug remains unchanged, while the other is metabolized to phenylacetic acid, phenylacetylproline, and cycloprolylglycine. Noopept has a high relative bioavailability (99.7%). It does not cumulate in the body or cause drug dependence.

Is it Safe to Use Noopept?

Noopept is considered to be a safe preparation. There is no cumulative effect, the development of tolerance, and the appearance of new components of the drug’s action. When the compound is discontinued, slight activation phenomena may be noted, with no signs of the development of “rebound” anxiety, characteristic of some nootropics. [6] Discontinuation of the drug does not cause withdrawal syndrome.

Noopept has no damaging effect on internal organs. It does not change the cellular composition of the blood or blood and urine biochemical indicators. The drug does not have immunotoxic, teratogenic, or mutagenic properties.

Does Noopept have any Side-effects?

Noopept is generally safe and well-tolerated. However, some people have reported side effects such as headaches, fatigue, and dizziness.

Noopept is a nootropic supplement that is not yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the US. However, Noopept is successfully and officially used to treat brain injuries of vascular and traumatic origin and other brain diseases in some of the CIS countries.

Before taking Noopept, be sure to read the official instructions. And consult with a medical professional, if you want to be extra safe.

There is also a Noopept research section in this blog post for your convenience.

What are the Benefits of Noopept?

Noopept Indications

Noopept is a nootropic supplement that has many health benefits. It has been shown to improve cognitive function, memory, focus, and creativity. It has also been shown to increase the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain, which can help to improve overall brain health.

Noopept modulates AMPA and NMDA receptors in the brain, which are associated with how glutamate and calcium are used.

Noopept prevents glutamate toxicity, influences LTP, and produces an anxiolytic effect. Noopept has been shown to boost nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are involved in neuroplasticity.

Generally speaking according to the manufacturer Noopept may be useful for young people who want to restore the high concentration of attention and good memory. Noopept may also be advantаgeous for people over 50 y.o. who need to maintain mental performance in the family, at work, and in society and prevent age-related cognitive decline. The clinical applications of the compound also include traumatic brain injury and stroke, asthenic disorders, and autonomic disorders. [14]

How Soon will I feel the Effect of Noopept?

The therapeutic effect of the drug in patients with organic disorders of the central nervous system appears on the 5th–7th day of administration.

In the beginning, the anxiolytic and light stimulatory effects of Noopept result in the reduction or disappearance of anxiety, increased irritability, affective lability, and sleep disturbances.

Positive effects of the drug on cognitive functions, attention, and memory parameters are best visible after 14–20 days of the therapy.

What are the Long-term Effects of Noopept?

Noopept is a cognitive enhancer that has been found to have long-term effects on cognitive function. It has been shown to improve memory, focus, and learning ability. It is also known to have anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory effects.

Noopept Dosage – How to take Noopept?

noopept-instruction-2

Noopept is best taken orally. One pill of Noopept contains 10mg of the active ingredient. The recommended oral dosage of Noopept is 1-3 pills per day, split into several intakes. The standard duration of the Noopept course is 1.5 months = 2 packs. With this dosage, the development of a full-fledged nootropic effect is known to occur in the 2nd or 3rd week of therapy. You can read the translation of Noopept official instruction.

If you want to take a higher dose, for example, 30mg, it is best to start low and work your way up. Users usually start with 10mg per day for several days before increasing their dose by 5mg per week.

Different vendors suggest various dosages. And the most common one is Noopept 30 mg capsules. However, the bioavailability of Noopept 10 mg pills is sufficient enough when administered orally. This is a standard dosage that is supported by years of Noopept research in Russia and the USSR. In the homeland of Noopept, it is sold in its original form only: pills with 10 mg of the active substance in each of them. Read more in the “Research” tab on the product page!

Some people choose to take Noopept sublingually, which is under the tongue. But it may not necessarily bring the desired effect compared to the standard Noopept route of administration. Some people also choose to take Noopept at a mega dose, which is more than the recommended oral dosage. However, users rarely exceed 30mg per day, as larger doses provide no further benefit but may greatly increase side effect risks. Always consult a doctor before taking a mega dose.

How Often Can a Course of Noopept Treatment be Repeated?

Noopept course duration depends on the nature of the disease. Usually, the treatment lasts from 1.5 to 3 months. It can be repeated after a month’s break. Please read Noopept’s official instructions for more information.

Noopept Official Drug Sheet

Noopept® pills (10 mg) | [PDF]

Noopept 10mg pills Official Instructions

Noopept Research and Clinical Trials

Noopept (active ingredient – N-phenylacetyl-Lprolylglycine ethyl ester) was developed in 1992 in the Zakusov Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology named after Vasiliy Zakusov, an honored pharmacologist of the Soviet Union. It was one of the leading scientific schools in the USSR. Noopept is the result of more than 20 years of work by research teams. Since its creation, the preparation has been tested and passed a lot of different clinical trials. Noopept is a nootropic supplement that has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function. There is robust research supporting these effects, with multiple double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Below you will find a short description of just a few of Noopept scientific human studies.

Randomized Clinical Trial of Comparative Efficacy of Noopept and Piracetam in the Treatment of Asthenic Disorders and Disorders of Organic Genesis [6]

Clinical comparison of Noopept and Piracetam in patients with organic emotionally labile disorder showed that the effectiveness of both drugs in terms of assessing the severity of psychopathological and somatic neurological symptoms, and cognitive functions were almost the same. However, Noopept was characterized by a lower risk of developing adverse events (by 12 – 62%). Besides Noopept revealed a number of advantages:

  • Significantly lower (almost 100 times) effective doses compared to Piracetam;
  • Influence on all phases of memory (introduction, consolidation, storage, and retrieval of information), while Piracetam mainly affected the early phases of information processing;
  • Significantly broader (500 times) therapeutic margin;
  • Active on models of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (Piracetam – on models of ischemic stroke);
  • Reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity;
  • Significant reduction of the accumulation of intracellular calcium;
  • Pronounced anti-apoptotic effect;
  • Antioxidant and immunostimulating effects.

Multicenter Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Noopept in the Treatment of Discirculatory Encephalopathy (DE) with Moderate Cognitive Impairment [8]

The study involved 360 patients aged 50–80 y.o. with DE of I and II stages of atherosclerotic and hypertensive genesis with moderate cognitive decline. The study was carried out with the participation of specialists from 12 medical institutions in Russia. All patients took Noopept in a daily dose of 20 mg (10 mg 2 times a day) for 2 months. 

  • According to the results of the study, the positive effect of Noopept therapy on the cognitive functions of the examined patients was shown: attention, memory, and neurodynamic functions, which confirms a significant improvement in the overall score according to MMSE against the background of Noopept treatment.
  • There was also a significant improvement in the CDT index, which reflected an improvement in constructional praxis.
  • Also, against the background of the use of Noopept, an improvement in neurodynamic functions and speech production was revealed, which was confirmed by a significant improvement in the categorical associations’ test and a positive trend obtained when comparing the results of the literal associations’ test.
  • Noopept was well tolerated.

Study of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Noopept in the Treatment of Moderate Cognitive Impairments (MCI) in Patients after Ischemic Stroke [11]

The open prospective study included 60 patients aged 50 to 80 y.o. who had had an ischemic stroke during the last year before enrollment in the study. Patients of the main group were prescribed Noopept at a dose of 10 mg 2 times a day after meals for 2 months. The comparison group did not receive Noopept treatment. Patients of both groups, according to indications, continued treatment with antihypertensive, antiplatelet, and hypocholesterolemic agents.

  • After 2 months of therapy, there was a more pronounced improvement in the MMSE scale indicators in the main group of patients receiving additional Noopept therapy, compared with the control group.
  • Evaluation of the indicators of literal and categorical associations revealed a significant improvement in the performance of the categorical association test in patients receiving Noopept.
  • According to the scale of the general clinical impression on the change in GCIC, the overall assessment of the effectiveness of the therapy in the Noopept treatment group corresponded to a moderate improvement, while in the control group there were no dynamics on this scale.
  • During the study, no significant adverse reactions were detected when taking Noopept. There were no cases of discontinuation.

Use of Noopept in Patients with Moderate Cognitive Impairment of Post-traumatic Genesis [10]

The study enrolled 30 patients aged 19 to 66 with a history of documented TBI at least 6 months ago (concussion or contusion of the brain of mild degree), with moderate cognitive impairment, the development of which was directly related to the previous trauma and did not reach the degree of dementia. All patients received Noopept according to the scheme: 10 mg 2 times a day for 60 days.

  • Against the background of the ongoing therapy, significant changes from the baseline level were shown on the MMSE scale 30 days after the start of treatment (a significant improvement in concentration, decrease in attention fatigue, etc.).
  • The majority of patients noted a partial regression of subjective signs of the disease – many of them noted decreased headache, lower severity of dizziness, and normalization of sleep, i.e. there was a trend to minimize symptoms that form the pseudoneurotic syndrome.

During Noopept administration, only 1 patient had an undesirable phenomenon – headache, which was regarded as insignificant and not related to taking the drug and it did not require cancellation.

What are the Different Forms of Noopept: Powder, Capsules, Spray, Pills?

Noopept pills 10mg

There are some anecdotal reviews saying that Noopept is more effective in forms other than pills, for example, spray or sublingual powder. But these unconventional forms are not spread in the country of origin of Noopept. We were unable to find any valid research supporting the effectiveness and safety of new forms of Noopept.

Some users argue that Noopept is a peptide and when taken orally, its main part dissolves (like ordinary proteins) and does not pass the blood-brain barrier, therefore it may not reach the brain. They state that in order for Noopept to act faster, it best be taken intranasally or sublingually. Some compare it to Semax in this sense, which is not quite correct.

Is Noopept Legal?

Noopept is a non-scheduled chemical compound. Most countries allow the individual import of food supplements, chemical compounds, and nootropics for private use or for research, respectively. Generally, under US law as well as under the laws of most countries nootropics are not considered prescription drugs. Therefore, their import is not regulated. At the same time, customs reserves the right to hold your products for inspection. The chance of an inspection is very small unless you are from Canada or Australia where it is quite common.

Noopept can be legally bought OTC without a prescription in most jurisdictions of the former USSR countries. According to the instructions, Noopept does not require a prescription. You can buy Noopept online with fast US domestic delivery or international delivery at CosmicNootropic. We sell original pharmacy-grade nootropics of good quality.

Is Noopept Legal in the US and Canada?

Noopept is not regulated by the United States government, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Noopept is included in the racetam category (aniracetam, piracetam, etc) and is not illegal to purchase, possess or use in the United States. A similar applies to Canada.

Thus it can be purchased online, and used in the US and Canada without restrictions.

Is Noopept Legal in Europe and in the UK?

It is not possible to access Noopept OTC without a prescription in European countries or in the UK. But you can buy it online at CosmicNootropic at a low price with international delivery. We supply products of original high quality. And we have successfully delivered nootropics including Noopept to most of the EU, the UK, and many other countries.

Noopept Reddit Reviews & Experiences

There are many Noopept Reviews on Reddit that provide information on personal experience with the substance that is said to improve brain health. Below you will find links to some of the best Noopept reviews.

This thread on Reddit also includes comments from users who have tried Noopept and experienced positive results. And yet another Noopept review thread may be quieter relevant in terms of comparing different modes of administration and Noopept effects. This personal experience with Noopept pills on Reddit claims that it improved the user’s short-term memory, which was somewhat impaired after heavy partying/drug use. The user in this thread shared the Noopept daily experience for 1 week.

Another comprehensive Noopept review of the compound’s effects can be found in this blog. The author compares different administration methods of Noopept, personal side-effects, shares links to online vendors, suggests stacks, and many more. The ultimate effect that the author notices from Noopept is the increase in productivity, both short-term and long-term.

Users often compare Piracetam and Noopept in their reviews. In this Reddit Noopept review a person shares the experience of using both. It is noted that Noopept price is more attractive compared to Piracetam while the dose is significantly lower. While piracetam gave the user more focus and creativity, Noopept was really good at improving diligence, i.e. the ability to work longer, and it also had an anxiolytic effect, which piracetam did not. So the author of the post suggested combining the two.

Noopept vs. Piracetam: What is the Difference?

Piracetam is a non-peptide prototype of Noopept nootropic. The pharmacological activity of Noopept is generally similar to the activity of Piracetam, but it is said to be manifested in 1000 times lower doses [5]. The most pronounced antiamnestic effect of Noopept was determined in doses of 0.5–0.8 mg/kg. The duration of action was 4-6 hours after a single intake. When it was increased to 1.2 mg/kg, the effect disappeared (“dome-shaped” dependence). For reference, the maximum effect of nootropic Piracetam was revealed at a dose of 500 mg/kg, with an increase in the dose to 800–1000 mg/kg the effect also disappeared. [6]

In addition, Noopept is said to have more pronounced anxiolytic and neuroprotective properties in comparison to Piracetam. It is said that Noopept is more potent than the latter in terms of improving cognitive function, memory, focus, and creativity.

However, we have to remind you that many nootropics are called “regulators”, which implies that they may have opposite effects depending on an individual’s state. 

Noopept Supplement FAQs

Can Noopept Cause Headaches?

There are some anecdotal experiences on Reddit for example, saying that Noopept may cause headaches. If you are concerned about it, you may want to stack Noopept with choline. This combination may bring better treatment results.

Can you get Used to Noopept if you Take it for a Long Time?

During the research, it was found that Noopept does not cause drug dependence (you cannot get used to it). And there is no withdrawal syndrome (you can stop taking it at any time).

Is it Possible to use Noopept during Pregnancy or Lactation?

In the course of the experiment, it was found that Noopept has no teratogenic, mutagenic and immunotoxic properties. However, Noopept has not been studied in women during pregnancy and lactation. So it is not indicated for use in these cases.

Can Noopept be used in Children to Improve Learning Ability?

Noopept is registered for use in persons over 18 years old. Given the low level of toxicity, it is planned to conduct a number of studies that could allow registering Noopept in children. But until then it is not recommended to use Noopept in children.

Can I take Noopept and Alcohol together?

The use of alcohol does not affect the drug metabolism and effects of Noopept in the body. At the same time, the neuroprotective properties of Noopept increase the resistance of the brain tissue to the damaging effects of toxic substances, including alcohol.

Where is Noopept Manufactured?

OTCPharm JSC is a Russian pharmaceutical company that produces Noopept. It was formed as a result of the branching of the OTC business during the reorganization of Pharmstandard at the end of 2013. The portfolio of OTCPharm is represented by such well-known and popular brands as ArbidolAfobazoleNoopept, and other substances. 

All OTCPharm products are manufactured in strict accordance with the quality management system at large production facilities. The quality management system operating at the enterprises has been developed and implemented in accordance with the requirements of the national standards of the Russian Federation: 

OTCPharm production of Noopept
Production facilities of OTCPharm

Only raw materials that have passed the incoming inspection and received the appropriate permission are used in production. During the production process, monitoring of the main parameters is carried out, including environmental ones (microbiological control of air, equipment, clothing, and hands of personnel, etc.), and product quality control.

The finished product is not subject to market launch until the authorized body confirms in writing that each of its series has been produced and controlled in accordance with the requirements of the registration dossier.

Noopept pills production

There is also internal control. Internal audits (self-inspections) at OTCPharm are carried out in order to assess the effectiveness of the quality management system, increase its effectiveness, and determine further development paths. The audits are carried out in accordance with annually developed schedules, at a set time, and with a certain frequency. All Pharmstandard enterprises including OTCPharm undergo regular external audits, both by the state regulatory authorities of the Russian Federation and by independent European and Russian auditors.

Where to Buy Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic supplement that is available for purchase on a number of different websites. Be sure to do your research before purchasing Noopept to ensure you are buying a quality product from a reputable source.

Noopept is available for order online in various forms: Noopept pills, Noopept powder, capsules, and spray. CosmicNootropic offers Noopept pills in packs of 50x10mg pills with fast US delivery and worldwide shipping. We also offer volume discounts!

If you want to order Noopept pills at a low price and of pharmaceutical production, the best place to buy them is CosmicNootropic. We sell original, pure nootropics of high quality with safety confirmed by years of research and clinical trials. You can order Noopept and get it delivered to the US, Europe, the UK, Asia, and many other regions and countries via CosmicNootropic.

Noopept Summary

In this article, we provided a full-fledged Noopept review. It is a nootropic substance of the peptide class that is used for brain health. It is growing in popularity due to its effectiveness as a cognitive enhancing compound and because its active dose range is between 10 and 30 mg, which is much lower than compounds that offer similar effects such as racetams (piracetam, aniracetam).

Noopept has been shown to be effective in treating memory loss, improving cognitive function, and reversing cognitive decline. Noopept side effects are minor and the nootropic peptide is generally well-tolerated.

It is recommended to take 10 and 30 mg once/twice a day for up to 56 days to experience most of the Noopept peptide’s benefits.

Before taking Noopept, be sure to read the official instructions carefully and consult with your medical specialist.

CosmicNootropic Pill Box

Medical Disclaimer
All statements on this page are for informational purposes only and have not been evaluated by the US FDA.
Products on this page are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. See more

Noopept Review – Bibliography 

  1. Solntseva EI, Bukanova JV et al (1997). The effects of piracetam and its novel peptide analogue GVS-111 on neuronal voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9195198/
  2. Ostrovskaya RU, Romanova GA et al (1997). The novel substituted acylproline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, promotes the restoration of learning and memory impaired by bilateral frontal lobectomy in rats. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9833021/
  3. Ostrovskaya RU, Romanova GA, Barskov IV et al (1999). Memory restoring and neuroprotective effects of the proline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, in a photochemical stroke model. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10780261/
  4. Pelsman A, Hoyo-Vadillo C, Ostrovskaya RU et al (2003). GVS-111 prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis in normal and Down’s syndrome human cortical neurons. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12711349/
  5. Kraineva VA, Galaeva IP et al (2006). Comparative activity of noopept and piracetam in the model of intracerebral post-traumatic hematoma. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sravnitelnaya-aktivnost-noopepta-i-piratsetama-na-modeli-intratserebralnoy-posttravmaticheskoy-gematomy/viewer
  6. Avedisova AS, Yastrebov DV (2007). Comparative efficacy of Noopept and Piracetam in the treatment of asthenic disorders and disorders of organic genesis https://www.rmj.ru/articles/nevrologiya/Sravnitelynaya_effektivnosty_Noopepta_i_piracetama_pri_terapii_astenicheskih_rasstroystv_i_narusheniy_organicheskogo_geneza/
  7. Ostrovskaya RU, Gudasheva TA, Zaplina AP, et al (2008). Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19240853/
  8. Yakhno NN, Damulin IV, Antonenko LM (2009). Noopept in the treatment of discirculatory encephalopathy with moderate cognitive impairment. https://kremlin-neurology.ru/library/Yahno_Noo_v_lechenii_DE_umer_kogn_r-va.pdf
  9. Ostrovskaya RU, Iu V Vakhitova IuV, M Kh Salimgareeva MKh et al (2010). On the mechanism of noopept action: decrease in activity of stress-induced kinases and increase in expression of neutrophines. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21395007/
  10. Odinak MM et al (2011). Use of Noopept in patients with moderate cognitive decline of post-traumatic genesis https://noopept.ru/themes/m/docs/4.pdf
  11. Amelin AV, Ilyukhina AYu, Shmonin AA (2011). Noopept in the treatment of mild cognitive disorders in patients with stroke. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22500312/
  12. Vakhitova IuV et al (2015). Molecular mechanism of action of Noopept – a substituted by Pro-Gly dipeptide. https://noopept.ru/themes/m/docs/molekuljarnyj-mehanizm-dejstvija-preparata-noopept.pdf
  13. Mironova ES, Khavinson VKh et al (2020). Neuroprotective effects of peptides. https://khavinson.info/assets/files/skan/mironova-ag.pdf
  14. The official web-site of Noopept [https://noopept-ru.translate.goog/?_x_tr_sl=auto&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=ru&_x_tr_pto=nui_pto=nui]

Leave a comment