Pantocalcin is a nootropic drug that is used in the treatment of various neurotic disorders and psychoemotional stress. The active ingredient of this drug is Hopantenic acid and it has neuroprotective, neurometabolic and neurotrophic properties.
Hopantenic acid (N-pantoyl-GABA) is the higher homologue of D(+)-pantoyl–g– aminobutyric acid (vitamin B5), in which β-Alanine is replaced by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This substance was first synthesized by Japanese researchers in the early 1950s as a part of research on pantothenic acid analogues; then, it was found to be present in the brain of various animal and plant tissues. Subsequent pharmacological study of this compound was conducted in Japan and later in the Soviet Union.
Indications for use:
It should be noted, that many Russian physicians prescribe Pantocalcine to children as a mild nootropic for correction of ADHD and other conditions.
Pantocalcin is also used for the treatment of other conditions in a combination with other drugs as a part of complex therapy. In other words, it is rarely used as a stand-alone medicine but the treatment can be more effective if Pantocalcine is added as a part of complex therapy.
In the indications listed below Pantocalcine is usually used as a part of complex therapy and not as a first drug of choice.
The on-label use of Pantocalcin includes the following indications:
- cognitive impairment in organic brain lesions and neurotic disorders;
- cerebrovascular insufficiency caused by atherosclerotic changes in cerebral vessels, senile dementia (initial form) and residual organic brain lesions in persons of mature age and in the elderly;
- cerebral organic insufficiency in patients with schizophrenia;
- extrapyramidal hyperkinesis in patients with hereditary diseases of the nervous system (Huntington’s chorea, hepatocerebral dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease, etc.);
- the consequences of previous neuroinfectiouns and traumatic brain injuries;
- correction of side effects caused by neuroleptics or preventively as a so-called “add-back therapy”;
- epilepsy with a slowdown of mental;
- psychoemotional stress, reduced mental and physical performance as well as problems with concentration and memory;
- urination disorders: enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence, pollakiuria and urinary urgency;
- children with mental retardation e.g. delay in mental, speech and motor development, infantile cerebral palsy, stuttering (mainly clonic form) and epilepsy.
Hopantenic acid is a natural mediator of GABA in the nerve tissue unlike other GABA-derived nootropic drugs.
Unlike GABA, hopantenic acid penetrates the blood-brain barrier and has a pronounced effect on the functional activity of the CNS due to the presence of pantoyl radical in its molecule.
The fact that hopantenic acid has many points of application in cellular metabolism determines a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. Thus, the drug improves glucose utilization (especially in the cerebral cortex, subcortical ganglia, hypothalamus and cerebellum), nucleic acid metabolism; it also activates the synthesis of ATP, protein and RNA, i.e. stimulates anabolic processes in the brain neurons. The indirect neurometabolic effect of the drug is associated with the improvement of microcirculation in the brain due to optimization of the passage of red blood cells through the vessels of the microvasculature and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Along with the neurometabolic effect the drug has antihypoxic (reducing neuronal oxygen demand under hypoxic conditions), neuroprotective (increasing resistance of nerve cells to adverse factors of various origins) and antiepileptic effects.
By restoring GABAergic neurotransmission, hopantenic acid leads to an improvement in bioelectrical activity and integrative activity of the brain, which is manifested by characteristic changes of electrophysiological patterns such as facilitation of information transfer between the hemispheres, enhancement of wakefulness, amplification of the absolute and relative power of the EEG spectrum of the cortex and hippocampus. Besides, hopantenic acid enhances cortico-subcortical control, improves informational exchange in the brain, which leads to improved memory, perception, attention, thinking, increased learning ability and activated intellectual functions.
Thus, Pantocalcin, the calcium salt of hopantenic acid with all the properties of this acid, contributes to normalization of the brain function at the level of individual neurons and their synaptic connections in various pathologies.