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PYRITINOL (Encephabol ®)

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All statements on this page are for informational purposes only and have not been evaluated by the US FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Before using this product, consulting a qualified MD is mandatory. See more

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Buy Pyritinol (Encephabol ®) Online!

Pyritinol (brand name Encephabol ®) is a semi-synthetic water-soluble analog of vitamin B6. It is prescribed as a treatment for cognitive and learning disorders and rheumatoid arthritis and used as a nootropic dietary supplement.

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Synonyms Enchepabol / Encefabol / Cerbon 6
Form: 50 pills of 100mg
Form description:  Yellow shiny round biconvex film-coated tablets with two layers visible in cross-section.
Active ingredient: Pyritinol dihydrochloride monohydrate – 100 mg
Excipients: Sodium carmellose – 1.6 mg, magnesium stearate – 3.2 mg, colloidal silicon dioxide – 4.8 mg, sodium carboxymethyl starch – 6.4 mg, lactose monohydrate – 19.8 mg, cellulose powder – 24.2 mg.
Shell composition: quinoline yellow dye 70% – 30 mcg, mountain glycol wax – 80 mcg, gelatin – 800 mcg, acacia gum – 1.7 mg, wheat flour – 8.2 mg, titanium dioxide – 9 mg, kaolin – 14.2 mg, talc – 14.3 mg, sucrose – 121.69 mg.
СAS Number: 1098-97-1
ATC code: N06BX02
Pharmacological action: Nootropic
Shelf life: Do not use it beyond the expiration date printed on the package.
Storage conditions: Store in a dry dark place at temperatures no higher than 25°C (77°F). Keep out of reach of children.
Terms of release: Over-the-counter
Manufacturer: Merck, Germany / Takeda, Austria


What is Encephabol?

Encephabol (Pyritinol) is a cholinergic nootropic drug that is used to restore impaired cognitive functions and treat dementia.

By its chemical structure, Pyritinol is a vitamin B6 derivative that is obtained by bonding two molecules of pyridoxine with a disulfide bridge. However, the pharmacological action of Encephabol differs from that of Vitamin B6.

The drug was developed in 1961 by Merck (Germany) and has a long history of clinical use. As of today, Encephabol is marketed in more than 50 countries worldwide. It is used in medicine to treat dementia, decreased mental capacity, and developmental delays in children, such as autism.

Pyritinol does not produce a significant effect on aminergic systems, having practically no influence on levels, turnover, and uptake of dopamine, serotonin, GABA, and norepinephrine.

What is the Mechanism of Action of Pyritinol?

Its main mechanism of action is cholinergic, antioxidant, and vasodilatory.

Pyritinol enhances pathologically reduced metabolic processes in the brain tissue. It can increase the absorption and metabolism of glucose and the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia. The medication promotes the exchange of nucleic acids and the activity of several enzymes and mediator systems of the brain.

When taken regularly, Pyritinol helps to boost mental performance, improve memory, and enhance learning ability in conditions of pathology.

What are the Benefits and Effects of Pyritinol?

In studies, Pyritinol has been shown to:

  • Increase blood ATP in a dose-dependent manner by up to 20%;
  • Compensate the age-related reduction in glucose utilization by up to 75%;
  • Increase choline uptake in striatal synaptosomes in both aged and young rats;
  • Increase the cGMP content in the cortex by up to 50%;
  • Produce a significant vasodilatory effect comparable to that of Vinpocetine;
  • Produce vigilance-enhancing effects in EEG studies;
  • Improve psychomotor performance and short-term memory in healthy volunteers.


To avoid possible side effects and potentiate the therapeutic action, it is highly recommended to take Pyritinol with an additional source of choline e.g. Cereton.

The combination of Encephabol and Vinpocetine has a synergistic effect on cerebral blood flow.

Where Can I Order Pyritinol (Encephabol) Online?

You can purchase Pyritinol online from different vendors. CosmicNootropic offers Pyritinol (Encephabol) in packs of 50x100mg pills. We offer worldwide shipping with volume discounts! Always be sure to do your research before ordering any nootropic supplement to ensure you are getting a quality product.

You can purchase Encephabol and get it delivered to the US, Europe, the UK, Asia, and many other regions and countries via CosmicNootropic.

Read more about one of its manufacturers Takeda in this blog post.


Legal Disclaimer
This product has not been approved by the US FDA. All statements on this page are for informational purposes only and have not been evaluated by the US FDA.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. See more

What is Encephabol Dosage and Administration?

The dosage for adults is 200 mg (2 pills) three times a day, during or after a meal. If you experience sleep disturbances, do not take this medicine in the evening or before bed.

Typically, it takes 3-4 weeks for a therapeutic effect to be observed, with its peak in the 6th–12th week. The minimum duration of treatment is 8 weeks.

What are the Side Effects of Encephabol?

  • Allergic reactions (skin rash, nausea, diarrhea, hyperthermia);
  • Insomnia;
  • Agitation;
  • Decreased appetite;
  • Dysgeusia;
  • Liver disorders.


  • Hypersensitivity;
  • Liver and kidney disorders;
  • Abnormal blood test results;
  • Autoimmune diseases;
  • Age below 7 years old (for pill form).
  • Encephabol should be taken with caution in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  1. Ismael et al (1974) Post-encephalitis Treatment with Encephabol
  2. Walti et al (1975) Pyritinol hydrochloride and cognitive functions: influence on children in slow learner classes
  3. J Glatzel (1976) Clinical experience with Encephabol (author’s transl)
  4. Stroesco et al (1977) Experimental research on the effect of piracetam and pyritinol on the central nervous system (MID)
  5. N Papathéodossiou (1979) Use of encephabol in anaesthesia and post-anaesthesia resuscitation
  6. M Flood (1979) Pyritinol hydrochloride (encephabol) and senile dementia
  7. A Cooper, R Magnus (1980) A placebo-controlled study of pyritinol (‘Encephabol’) in dementia
  8. Voronina et al (1986) Specificity of the action of piracetam, encephabol and Cleregil on the transcallosal evoked potential
  9. Herrmann et al (1986) On the effects of pyritinol on functional deficits of patients with organic mental disorders
  10. Greiner et al (1988) Neurochemical studies on the mechanism of action of pyritinol
  11. Topinka et al (1989) The influence of alpha-tocopherol and pyritinol on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in human lymphocytes
  12. Hindmarch et al (1990) Psychopharmacological effects of pyritinol in normal volunteers
  13. Knezevic et al (1990) Long term treatment of SDAT patients with pyritinol
  14. Fischof et al (1992) Therapeutic efficacy of pyritinol in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) and multi-infarct dementia
  15. Heiss et al (1994) Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation
  16. Vasco et al (2004) Severe cholestatic hepatitis induced by pyritinol
  17. L Zenkov, A Zenkova (2011) Encephabol in the treatment of cognitive disorders in epilepsy
  18. Alkuraishy et al (2014) Vinpocetine and pyritinol: a new model for blood rheological modulation in cerebrovascular disorders—a randomized controlled clinical study
  19. I Apetrei and C Apetrei (2017) Highly sensitive voltamperometric determination of pyritinol using carbon nanofiber/gold nanoparticle composite screen-printed carbon electrode
  20. I Apetrei, C Apetrei (2017) Highly sensitive voltamperometric determination of pyritinol using carbon nanofiber/gold nanoparticle composite screen-printed carbon electrode
  21. Singh et al (2019) A critical review of pyritinol 
  22. Daia et al (2021) Modulated Neuroprotection in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
  23. Roberts et al (2022) The efficacy and tolerability of pharmacologically active interventions for alcohol-induced hangover symptomatology: a systematic review of the evidence from randomised placebo-controlled trials


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