Likopid [GMDP]

INTENDED USES:

Children from 3 years old, 1 mg

  • Chronic, recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the acute stage and in remission;
  • Acute and chronic purulent-inflammatory diseases of skin and soft tissues (pyoderma, furunculosis, etc.);
  • Herpetic infection.

Adults, 1 mg, 10 mg

  • Chronic infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract;
  • Acute and chronic purulent-inflammatory diseases of skin and soft tissues (pyoderma, furunculosis, etc.), including purulent-septic postoperative complications
  • Herpetic infection;
  • Sexually transmitted infections (papilloma viral infection, chronic trichomoniasis);
  • Psoriasis (including psoriatic arthritis);
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis;
  • Prevention and reduction of the seasonal incidence of acute respiratory infections and the frequency of exacerbations of chronic diseases of ENT organs and upper and lower respiratory tract. 

Dosage and Administration

Lycopid® is administered orally or sublingually in the fasting state, 30 minutes before meals.

If you skip an intake not more than 12 hours ago, you can take the missed dose; if more than 12 hours have passed, only the next dose can be taken. For the detailed information on the drug administration please refer to the description.

Contraindications.

  • Hypersensitivity to the drug components;
  • Pregnancy and lactation;
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis in the acute phase;
  • Conditions accompanied by febrile temperature (> 38°C or > 100.4°F);
  • Rare congenital metabolic disorders;
  • Child age for Licopid® 10 mg.

Note:

Lycopid® contains sucrose and lactose, which should be taken into account by patients with diabetes mellitus and patients suffering from hypolactasia.

Lycopid® must be used with caution by elderly patients.  

The decision to prescribe Licopid ® 10 mg to patients with a combination of psoriasis and gout should be made by the doctor who can assess the risk/benefit ratio of such prescription.  

Licopid® (or Lycopid) is the latest generation immunomodulator containing a complete synthetic analog of natural peptidoglycan (GMDP or glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide), which is the minimum biologically active repeating fragment of the bacterial cell wall structure. Once in the body, Lycopid® mimics the natural process of detecting fragments of peptidoglycan bacteria. Thus, the effect of the drug is as close as possible to the process of natural immunoregulation, realized in the body under the influence of pathogenic bacteria.

The anticancer drug Blastolizin, which was created by I. Bogdanov a Bulgarian scientist in the 1960s, based on ideas about the importance of lactic acid products in the prevention of cancer, was a basis for the creation of Licopid®. The study of the biological activity of blastolizin and the definition of its chemical structure at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences led to the identification of GMDP and to the synthesis of extensive series of derivatives of muramyl dipeptide (MDP). It took scientists almost 10 years to test and research various MDP analogues. Only in 1989 did the development of GMDP as a medicine begin. GMDP was first synthesized in 1989 by a group of scientists of the Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry under the leadership of V.T. Ivanov and T.A. Andronova. In 1993-1995, under the supervision of T.M. Andronova an industrial method of the GMDP production was developed. It became clear that GMDP, which would later become the active ingredient of Licopid®, successfully combined biological activity and a good safety profile (low pyrogenicity and toxicity). Preclinical and clinical studies of Lycopid® (GMDP) were conducted in the UK (Toxicol Laboratories Ltd, The Royal Masonic Hospital), in Australia (UNSW Department of Surgery and Department of Oncology, The St. George Hospital), in Latvia (Latvian Institute of Bioorganic Synthesis) and in Russia, where the main research was conducted at the Institute of Immunology of the FMBA of the Russian Federation.

Licopid® is perhaps one of the most vivid examples of how a discovery, supported by many years of comprehensive scientific research, can serve for the benefit of the human. The drug increases the functional activity of the "main" cells of the innate immune system, professional "eaters" of foreign substances - phagocytes.  Licopid® enhances their presentation of antigens, proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes; it increases the synthesis of specific antibodies and helps to normalize the balance of Th1/Th2 lymphocytes towards the prevalence of Th1. Lycopid® (GMDP) stimulates leukopoiesis and the restoration of granulocyte number by activating the production of the colony-stimulating factors.

GMDP also demonstrates other useful properties obtained in experimental studies: antitumor and antimetastatic effects and adjuvant properties (increased antibody production during immunization, which is especially important when introducing killed or "weakened" antigens). These are the new promising areas of scientific research for the future.

  1. Adam A, Lederer E (1984) Muramyl peptides: Immunomodulators, sleep factors, and vitamins. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6374337
  2. Behbehani K et al (1985) The effect of beryllium and other adjuvants on Ia expression by macrophages. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3855928
  3. Bahr GM, Chedid L (1986) Immunological activities of muramyl peptides. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3489642
  4. Asano T et al. (1994) Liposomal muramyl tripeptide upregulates IL-1a, IL-1b, TNFa, IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression on human monocytes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8113959
  5. Vinnitskiy LI et al (1997) Domestic immunomodulator of a new generation, Licopid, in the comprehensive therapy and prevention of infectious complications in surgery. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9461823
  6. Nesterova IV (1999) Modern Immunotherapy in Clinical Medicine: Present and Future. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12687147
  7. Tarasova OV (2001) Clinical and immunologic effect of likopid in complex therapy of occupational bronchial asthma. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11768952
  8. Kevorkov NN et al (2002) Licopid in the complex immunomodulating treatment of patients with sarcoidosis of the lung and intrathoracic lymph nodes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11980125
  9. Svistunova AS et al (2002) The use of immunomodulator likopid in the combined treatment pulmonary tuberculosis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12066527
  10. Luginova EF, Aksenova VA (2007) Immunobiological disorders in children infected with drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and a method of their correctionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672061
  11. Petrova EE et al (2010) GMDP augments antitumor action of the CP/TNFalpha combination in vivo. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932583
  12. Antsiferova Y et al (2013) Different effects of the immunomodulatory drug GMDP immobilized onto aminopropyl modified and unmodified mesoporous silica nanoparticles upon peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24455738 
  13. Chop'iak VV, Pot'omkina HO (2013) Comparative characteristic of the treatment efficacy in patients with often recurrent acute respiratory infections complicated with immunodeficiency treated with likopid. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605620
  14. Abramova ES et al (2013) Likopid in complex treatment of oral dysbiosis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23528400
  15. Plekhova NG et al (2015) Effects of immunomodulators on functional activity of innate immunity cells infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25708326
  16. Laman AG et al (2015) Innate immunity: Bacterial cell-wall muramyl peptide targets the conserved transcription factor YB-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026270
  17. Guryanova S et al (2019) Pathogenetic Therapy of Psoriasis by Muramyl Peptide. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31281308


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