PANTOCALCIN ® (Hopantenic Acid)
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Pantocalcin is a nootropic drug that is used in the treatment of various neurotic disorders and psychoemotional stress. The active ingredient of this drug is Hopantenic acid and it has neuroprotective, neurometabolic, and neurotrophic properties.
Hopantenic acid (N-pantoyl-GABA) is the higher homolog of D(+)-pantoyl-g- aminobutyric acid (vitamin B5), in which β-Alanine is replaced by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This substance was first synthesized by Japanese researchers in the early 1950s as a part of research on pantothenic acid analogs; then, it was found to be present in the brain of various animal and plant tissues. Subsequent pharmacological study of this compound was conducted in Japan and later in the Soviet Union.
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It should be noted, that many Russian physicians prescribe Pantocalcin to children as a mild nootropic for correction of ADHD and other conditions.
You can also buy Pantocalcin for the treatment of other conditions in a combination with other drugs as a part of complex therapy. In other words, it is rarely used as a stand-alone medicine but the treatment can be more effective if Pantocalcin is added as a part of complex therapy.
In the indications listed below Pantocalcin is usually used as a part of complex therapy and not as the first drug of choice.
The on-label use of Pantocalcin includes the following indications:
- Cognitive impairment in organic brain lesions and neurotic disorders;
- Cerebrovascular insufficiency caused by atherosclerotic changes in cerebral vessels, senile dementia (initial form), and residual organic brain lesions in persons of mature age and in the elderly;
- Cerebral organic insufficiency in patients with schizophrenia;
- Extrapyramidal hyperkinesis in patients with hereditary diseases of the nervous system (Huntington’s chorea, hepatocerebral dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease, etc.);
- The consequences of previous neuroinfectious and traumatic brain injuries;
- Correction of side effects caused by neuroleptics or preventively as a so-called “add-back therapy”;
- Epilepsy with a slowdown of mental;
- Psychoemotional stress, reduced mental and physical performance as well as problems with concentration and memory;
- Urination disorders: enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence, pollakiuria, and urinary urgency;
- Children with mental retardation e.g. delay in mental, speech, and motor development, infantile cerebral palsy, stuttering (mainly clonic form), and epilepsy.
Hopantenic acid is a natural mediator of GABA in the nerve tissue, unlike other GABA-derived nootropic drugs.
Unlike GABA, hopantenic acid penetrates the blood-brain barrier and has a pronounced effect on the functional activity of the CNS due to the presence of pantoyl radical in its molecule.
The fact that hopantenic acid has many points of application in cellular metabolism determines a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. Thus, the drug improves glucose utilization (especially in the cerebral cortex, subcortical ganglia, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), nucleic acid metabolism; it also activates the synthesis of ATP, protein, and RNA, i.e. stimulates anabolic processes in the brain neurons. The indirect neurometabolic effect of the drug is associated with the improvement of microcirculation in the brain due to optimization of the passage of red blood cells through the vessels of the microvasculature and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Along with the neurometabolic effect the drug has antihypoxic (reducing neuronal oxygen demand under hypoxic conditions), neuroprotective (increasing resistance of nerve cells to adverse factors of various origins) and antiepileptic effects.
By restoring GABAergic neurotransmission, hopantenic acid leads to an improvement in bioelectrical activity and integrative activity of the brain, which is manifested by characteristic changes of electrophysiological patterns such as facilitation of information transfer between the hemispheres, enhancement of wakefulness, amplification of the absolute and relative power of the EEG spectrum of the cortex and hippocampus. Besides, hopantenic acid enhances cortico-subcortical control, improves informational exchange in the brain, which leads to improved memory, perception, attention, thinking, increased learning ability, and activated intellectual functions.
Thus, Pantocalcin, the calcium salt of hopantenic acid with all the properties of this acid, contributes to the normalization of the brain function at the level of individual neurons and their synaptic connections in various pathologies.
Produced by Valenta Pharm, Russia.
In 1 pill:
Active ingredient: hopantenic acid (hopantenic acid or calcium salt of hopantenic acid) 250 mg or 500 mg;
Excipients: basic magnesium hydroxycarbonate, calcium stearate, talc, and potato starch.
Pantocalcin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Tmax in blood plasma is 1 hour. The highest concentrations are found in the liver, kidneys, stomach wall, and skin. The drug penetrates the blood-brain barrier. Pantocalcin is not metabolized in the body and is excreted unchanged within 48 hours (67.5% of the dose with urine and 28.5% fecally).
Dosage and administration
- Orally, 15–30 minutes after meals.
- As a performance enhancer, Pantocalcin should be taken in a dose of 0.25 g, 3 times a day.
- Single dose for adults is 0.5–1 g, for children – 0.25–0.5 g; daily dose for adults is 1.5–3 g, for children – 0.75–3 g.
- Duration of treatment lasts from 1 to 4 months, in some cases, it can last up to 6 months. After 3–6 months it is possible to repeat the course of treatment.
- Children with mental retardation should take 0.5 g 4–6 times a day for 3 months.
- Children with delay in speech development should take 0.5 g 3-4 times a day for 2-3 months.
- Children with epilepsy should take 0.25–0.5 g 3-4 times a day, adults 0.5–1 g 3-4 times a day.
- Children with hyperkinesis should take 0.25–0.5 g 3–6 times a day for 1–4 months, adults 1.5–3 g per day for 1–5 months.
- Adults with urination disorder should take 0.5–1 g 2-3 times a day; children should take 0.25–0.5 g. Duration of treatment is from 2 weeks to 3 months; the duration depends on the disorder severity and therapeutic effects.
Pantocalcin prolongs the effects of barbiturates and enhances the effects of anticonvulsant drugs, nootropic drugs, and central nervous system stimulants; therefore, precautions should be taken to ensure that the combined use of these drugs with Pantocalcin will not result in any additional side effects.
Pantocaltcin might mitigate the side effects of phenobarbital, finlepsin, and antipsychotics.
Pantocalcin effects can be increased if the drug is combined with glycine or xydifon.
Valenta Pharm, Russia.
- Banno et al (1990) Simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid and hopantenic acid in biological samples and natural products by gas chromatography-mass fragmentography https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2109760/
- Banno et al (1991) Analytical studies on the chiral separation and simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid and hopantenic acid enantiomers in rat plasma by gas chromatography-mass fragmentography https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1860905/
- Batysheva et al (2013) Management of cognitive impairment in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy treated with pantocalcin https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107880
- Gromova te al (2016) The Neurotropic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antitumor Properties of the Hopantenic Acid Molecule Based on Chemoinformatic Analysis https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309544914_The_Neurotropic_Anti-Inflammatory_and_Antitumor_Properties_of_the_Hopantenic_Acid_Molecule_Based_on_Chemoinformatic_Analysis
- Zavadenko et al (2017) Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: the results of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study of hopantenic acid https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28638029/?i=3&from=pantogab
- Y Bykov, R Bekker (2018) Hopantenic acid: perspectives for its use in psychiatry https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325408264_Hopantenic_acid_perspectives_for_its_use_in_psychiatry
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