VISOMITIN ® (Skulachev Ions | SKQ1 Eye Drops)
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A few years ago a small molecule SkQ1 was synthesized by the group of professor Vladimir P. Skulachev at the Moscow State University. One part of SkQ1 functions as a molecular “tow truck” carrying the other part of the molecule – an extremely active antioxidant plastoquinone – into mitochondria. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results showed that SkQ1 was delivered into the mitochondria in an extremely targeted and efficient manner. The physics of the mitochondrial membrane and the unique properties of SkQ1 direct it into the inner leaflet of the inner mitochondrial membrane with high precision.
The presence of SkQ1 in the mitochondrial membrane enables mitochondria to protect themselves from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by breaking the chain reaction of lipid destruction. This ability of the lead molecule to protect cells against oxidative stress is the key to treating patients suffering from various age-related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and ophthalmic conditions.
It has been hypothesized that age-dependent accumulation of oxidative damages in living organisms may be the main cause of the aging process. It might be possible to control this damage accumulation by controlling the level of ROS production in mitochondria. It is important to stress that ROS production should be controlled and not stopped so that ROS can still fulfill a number of crucial biological functions. For instance, they fight bacteria and viruses, both directly – via elimination of pathogens, – and indirectly – via regulation of the immunological response to infection through triggering apoptosis (cell death).
Antioxidants are a well-developed pharmacological approach to fight against ROS. A possible role of antioxidants in controlling the aging process has widely and for a long time been discussed with ambiguous conclusions, ranging from the statement of the American biochemist Prof. Bruce Ames and colleagues on finding a new anti-aging therapy with a 100% positive result to D. Howes’s implication of the utter barrenness of this method, and, therefore, of total failure of Harman’s “free radical” hypothesis. According to Dr. Skulachev, the antioxidant−based aging control approach has some significant flaws.
The “ideal” antioxidant should be specifically targeted to mitochondria where ROS are produced and it should effectively remove not all the ROS but just their excess. It is also important for an antioxidant not to be toxic and not to be recognized and eliminated by cell enzymes.
With these criteria fulfilled, a successful anti-oxidant compound should be able to prevent/repair oxidative damage in the organism and prevent/treat many age-related disorders across various therapeutic areas.
The mechanism of action of SkQ1 involves at least two extremely complex and novel concepts: delivering a compound inside mitochondria and reducing ROS production inside mitochondria in a controlled and sustainable manner. SkQ1 molecule successfully addresses these two aspects as our experimental work has shown.
More than a dozen studies have been conducted and showed SkQ1 effectiveness in such critical therapeutic areas as the following:
- Age-related macular degeneration (AMD);
- Dry eye syndrome (DES);
- Non-infectious uveitis;
Produced by Mitotech, Russia.
Note: The product should be kept in the fridge after receiving it.
Dosage and administrationDosage is 1-2 drops 3 times a day. Duration of treatment is determined by the ophthalmologist individually, depending on the severity of symptoms and the dynamics of the pathological process in the eyes. The average treatment period is two to six months. During complex treatment of senile cataract held periodic medical examination ophthalmologist to appoint a possible surgical intervention on the lens of the eye.
ContraindicationsUsing eye drops Visomitin is contraindicated in case of individual intolerance or hypersensitivity to the active ingredient and auxiliary ingredients. Also, the drug cannot be used by children under 18 years.
Side effectsAs a side effects after application local reactions in the eye in the form of a burning sensation, cramps, redness of the conjunctiva can develop. Rare side effects: systemic allergic reactions such as skin rashes, itching, urticaria (a characteristic rash and swelling, which in appearance resemble the sting). Cases of severe allergic reactions in the form of angioedema, or anaphylactic shock (a progressive decrease in systemic blood pressure and organ failure) were not observed.
OverdoseThere is no data on overdose with topical application.
Storage conditionsStore in a dry dark place at temperatures no higher than 2–8°C. Use the opened bottle within 1 month. Keep out of reach of children. Shelf life is 2 years. Do not use beyond the expiration date printed on the package. Note: The product should be kept in the fridge after receiving.
ManufacturerProduced by Mitotech, Russia.
- Krementsova et al (2012) Reproducible effects of the mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan under different experimental scenarios https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23073710
- Kolosova et al (2012) The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 but not N-acetylcysteine reverses aging-related biomarkers in rats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23104863
- Ilyasova et al (2012) Substitution of ether linkage for ester bond in phospholipids increases permeability of bilayer lipid membrane for SkQ1-type penetrating cations https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23157264
- Chistyakov et al (2012) Effect of plastoquinone derivative 10-(6′-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) on estrous cycle and 17β-estradiol level in rats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23244734
- Snytnikova et al (2012) The therapeutic effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 and Cistanche deserticola is associated with increased levels of tryptophan and kynurenine in the rat lens https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23288574
- Solovieva et al (2013) Effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on programmed cell death induced by viral proteins in tobacco plants https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24228922
- Kapay et al (2013) Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone antioxidant SkQ1 prevents amyloid-β-induced impairment of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23735258
- Stefanova et al (2014) Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats can be partially retarded with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24047616
- Vays et al (2014) Antioxidant SkQ1 delays sarcopenia-associated damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24519884
- Perepechaeva et al (2014) The Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Downregulates Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Genes in the Retina of OXYS Rats with AMD-Like Retinopathy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132985
- Muraleva et al (2014) The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 restores αB-crystallin expression and protects against AMD-like retinopathy in OXYS rats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614531/
- Novikova et al (2014) Preventive and therapeutic effects of SkQ1-containing Visomitin eye drops against light-induced retinal degeneration https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25519068
- Rogovin et al (2014) Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Accelerates Maturation in Campbell Dwarf Hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266980940_Mitochondria-Targeted_Antioxidant_SkQ1_Accelerates_Maturation_in_Campbell_Dwarf_Hamsters_Phodopus_campbelli
- Rogovin et al (2014) Effects of mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative antioxidant (SkQ1) on demography of free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) kept in outdoor conditions. reproduction and lifespan: explanation in the framework of ultimate loads https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25519070
- Myasoedova et al (2014) Therapeutic Doses of SkQ1 Do Not Induce Cytochromes P450 in Rat Liver https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269771479_Therapeutic_Doses_of_SkQ1_Do_Not_Induce_Cytochromes_P450_in_Rat_Liver
- Manskikh et al (2014) Effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on development of spontaneous tumors in BALB/c mice https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25519073
- Iomdina et al (2015) Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 reverses glaucomatous lesions in rabbits https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25553485
- V Samuilov, D Kiselevsky (2015) Effect of cationic plastoquinone SkQ1 on electron transfer reactions in chloroplasts and mitochondria from pea seedlings https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25869358
- Rumyantseva et al (2015) Ameliorative effects of SkQ1 eye drops on cataractogenesis in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267419
- Manskikh et al (2015) Age-associated murine cardiac lesions are attenuated by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25323729
- Weniger et al (2016) The Analgesic Effect of the Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 in Pancreatic Inflammation https://wwww.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27274778/The_Analgesic_Effect_of_the_Mitochondria_Targeted_Antioxidant_SkQ1_in_Pancreatic_Inflammation
- Bazhin et al (2016) The novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 modulates angiogenesis and inflammatory micromilieu in a murine orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26914404
- Bakeeva et al (2016) Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 reduces age-related alterations in the ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5348314/
- Petrov et al (2016) SkQ1 Ophthalmic Solution for Dry Eye Treatment: Results of a Phase 2 Safety and Efficacy Clinical Study in the Environment and During Challenge in the Controlled Adverse Environment Model https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4735228/
- Tsybulko et al (2016) The Mitochondria-Targeted Plastoquinone–Derivative SkQ1 Promotes Health and Increases Drosophila melanogaster Longevity in Various Environments https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article/72/4/499/2630002
- Zernii et al (2017) Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Prevents Anesthesia-Induced Dry Eye Syndrome https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320369542_Mitochondria-Targeted_Antioxidant_SkQ1_Prevents_Anesthesia-Induced_Dry_Eye_Syndrome
- Rademann et al (2017) Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants SkQ1 and MitoTEMPO Failed to Exert a Long-Term Beneficial Effect in Murine Polymicrobial Sepsis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625755/
- Titova et al (2018) Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 suppresses fibrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma tumour cell growth https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29995559
- Jiang et al (2018) Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 improves spermatogenesis in Immp2l mutant mice https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28703400
- Rogov et al (2018) New Data on Effects of SkQ1 and SkQT1 on Rat Liver Mitochondria and Yeast Cells https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29738689
- Zernii et al (2018) Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SKQ1 protects cornea from oxidative damage induced by ultraviolet irradiation and mechanical injury https://bmcophthalmol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12886-018-0996-7
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