CITRULLINE MALATE (Stimol ®)
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Citrulline Malate is a tonic drug used to treat asthenia, which may occur as a result of aging or stress, buy it to stabilize metabolic processes, and provide for liver detoxification. Stimol helps stimulate recovery after surgery and severe illnesses.
Stimol combines medicinal properties of malate and L-citrulline. Citrulline is an α-amino acid that participates in the neutralization of ammonia in the liver produced as a result of the decomposition of nitrogen-containing compounds. Ammonia is then transformed into urea. Circulating citrulline concentration is a biomarker of intestinal functionality.
Malate is an important intermediate in various metabolic pathways including the Krebs cycle. In guard cells, malate concentration plays a crucial role in stomata movement. It also reduces the amount of lactate in the blood.
Citrulline malate is widely used for the treatment of patients suffering from asthenia to mitigate recovery time following physical activity. Moreover, the consistent search by athletes to obtain a competitive advantage has led to the use of it as a potential ergogenic aid. Citrulline malate is beneficial for improving performance in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise modalities via a variety of mechanisms including improved ammonia and lactic acid metabolism, increased oxygen delivery capacity via increased vasodilation, and increased adenosine triphosphate production via increases in Krebs cycle intermediates.
The drug is rapidly absorbed in the intestine and is excreted by the kidneys within 5-6 hours.
Since Stimol does not contain sugar, the drug can be used in patients with diabetes mellitus.
- Hypotension and dysautonomia;
- Asthenia during the recovery period after infectious diseases;
- Physical or mental asthenia;
- Alcohol abstinence;
- In order to improve physical performance in athletes;
- Asthenic syndrome;
- Recovery after surgery;
- As a tonic in aging patients.
Produced by Biocodex, France.
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Solution for oral administration in sachets of 10 ml.
Active ingredient: citrulline malate 100 mg/1 ml;
Inactive ingredients: natural flavoring of orange sangria 0.1 g, sodium hydroxide solution 30% 0.1886 g, and purified water up to 10 ml.
Dosage and administration
To be administered orally with meal washed down with half a glass of water.
Dosage for adults and ageing patients is 10 ml 3 times a day; dosage for children under 5 years is 10 ml once a day, 5–15 years – 10 ml twice a day.
Recommended length of the treatment course is 12 days.
- Peptic ulcer;
- Children under 5 years;
- Hypersensitivity to the components of the drug.
To be administered with caution in patients having a low-sodium diet as 1 sachet of the drug contains 30 mg of sodium.
Abdominal pains and allergic response.
No cases of overdose were registered.
No significant drug interactions were registered.
Store at temperature of 15–25°C. Keep out of the reach of children.
Shelf life is 3 years.
- Callis et al (1991) Activity of citrulline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Study in the animal and in man https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1930358
- Briand et al (1992) Use of a microbial model for the determination of drug effects on cell metabolism and energetics: study of citrulline-malate https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1554874
- Verleye et al (1995) Effects of citrulline malate on bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxemia in rats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7646577
- Oknin et al (1999) Use of citrulline malate (stimol) in patients with autonomic dystonia associated with arterial hypotension https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11530455
- Giannesini et al (2009) Beneficial effects of citrulline malate on skeletal muscle function in endotoxemic rat https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19036344
- J Pérez-Guisado, P Jakeman (2010) Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386132
- Giannesini et al (2011) Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664351
- Kiyici et al (2017) The Effect of Citrulline/Malate on Blood Lactate Levels in Intensive Exercise https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28664349
- Chappell et al (2018) Citrulline malate supplementation does not improve German Volume Training performance or reduce muscle soreness in moderately trained males and females https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086018/
- Allerton et al (2018) L-Citrulline Supplementation: Impact on Cardiometabolic Health https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073798/
- Rhim et al (2020) Effect of citrulline on post-exercise rating of perceived exertion, muscle soreness, and blood lactate levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33308806/
- Vårvik et al (2021) Acute Effect of Citrulline Malate on Repetition Performance During Strength Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34010809/
- A Aguiar, J Casonatto (2021) Effects of Citrulline Malate Supplementation on Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34176406/
- Gough et al (2021) A critical review of citrulline malate supplementation and exercise performance https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34417881/
- Meimoun et al (2022) Effect of citrulline malate supplementation on muscle function and bioenergetics during short-term repeated bouts of fatiguing exercise https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36251983/
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