Semax Nasal Drops Review and Answering FAQs: history, mechanisms of action, safety profile and where to buy

In this article about Semax nasal drops, we’ve done our best to correctly answer the most topical questions that are frequently being raised by first-time users on r/nootropics, r/peptides, and in some other forums. We’ve gone through a lot of info, translated a bunch of Russian sources, and covered many topics from the standpoint of on-label administration. You can read the whole article or jump straight to any part that is the most interesting to you.


CONTENTS


What is Semax?

SEMAX (sometimes mistakenly called “c max”) is a Russian nootropic drug that is used in the form of nasal spray and nasal drops to improve cognitive functions and to treat various medical conditions. The drug belongs to the class of regulatory peptides and is said to have a nootropic, psychostimulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant and antihypoxic effect. It is known to help increase mental and physical performance.
By its structure, Semax is a fragment of endogenous neuropeptide adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The drug was shown to increase BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) that is responsible for the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses.
It is used for disorders of the brain, including ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), astheno-neurotic disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and other diseases. Moreover, Semax has a huge number of different effects ranging from anesthesia with subcutaneous injections (this is not used in Russia) and ending with a marked increase in the effect of stimulants.
There are two dosages of the Russian Semax nootropic available for purchase:

  • Semax®0.1% (Market Authorisation Number LS-002553) is intended for the normalization and restoration of the brain in both healthy people and in a number of neurological diseases;
  • Semax®1% (Market Authorisation Number P N000812/01) is an increased dosage of the drug created for the treatment of stroke since the onset of the disease at the ambulance stage and in the hospital, as well as in the early recovery period.

How Semax was invented: scientists and research institutes behind its development?

The positive effects of neuropeptides were discovered in the late 1960s when David de Weid – who coined the term ‘neuropeptide’ – conducted a number of trials on white rats and found that fragments of adrenocorticotropic hormones facilitate learning abilities.
However it was not until the late 1970s, when the Soviet Ministry of Defense commissioned a wide range of experiments to determine the optimal way to prolong the effects of peptides and increase their scope. After a long and complicated trial-and-error process, the optimal peptide formula was synthesized, and it had 50 times longer effects than its natural analogue. After animal trials have shown efficacy and security, extensive research on humans was started to ensure safety, increase efficiency, and determine the optimal dosages and delivery methods.
The study was led by Nikolay Miasoedov and Igor Ashmarin. So who are these guys?

Dr. Nikolay Miasoedov is an Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Molecular Genetics).

Nikolay Myasoedov

  • Soviet and Russian scientist, a specialist in the field of biochemistry and biotechnology,
  • Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor, Honored Inventor of the Russian Federation,
  • Author of over 360 scientific papers and 2 monographs,
  • Author of more than 150 copyright certificates and patents for inventions of the USSR and the Russian Federation and 4 international patents (USA, England, France, and Sweden).

Dr. Igor Ashmarin is an outstanding Soviet and Russian scientist.

Igor Ashmarin

  • Specialist in the field of biochemistry and physiology,
  • Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences,
  • Doctor of Biological Sciences,
  • Major General of the Medical Service,
  • Emeritus Professor of Moscow State University,
  • Full Member of the International Academy of Higher Education.

These two honorable Russian scientists led the development and research of the world’s first synthesized Semax peptide. It was officially brought to the market on 20th December 1994. For the development, organization of production, and introduction of the drug into clinical practice, Dr. Ashmarin (together with the team) was awarded the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation. Since then Semax nootropic won a number of international awards. And since 2011 it is annually included in the List of Vital & Essential Drugs [18], because studies have shown its effectiveness in treating patients after strokes [10].


Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation for the development of Semax drug, Moscow 2002


Semax mechanisms of action: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

Pharmacodynamics: biochemical and physiological effects of Semax

Semax is a neuropeptide completely similar to natural ones. Therefore it has a natural effect on the body as its own. Semax activates the processes of maintaining and restoring the normal functioning of the central nervous system and has the following actions:

Neuroprotective:

  • Decrease in the level of glutamate excitotoxicity, due to which the development of the pathological process stops;
  • High antioxidant activity;
  • Reduction of the intensity of inflammation and local edema due to the normalization of the cytokine balance;
  • Suppression of the apoptosis process.

Neurometabolic:

  • Influence on the glucose metabolism in the body – Semax accelerates the transfer of glucose across the BBB and increases the degree of its absorption by brain cells;
  • Maintain a high level of ATP synthesis in cells even in oxygen deficiency;
  • Semax promotes the normalization of energy metabolism and protein synthesis in nerve cells, which prevents the dysfunction of the autonomic centers of the brain and, as a consequence, normalizes the functioning of peripheral tissues.
Neurotrophic:
  • Strengthening the level of synthesis of neurotrophins – regulators of growth and differentiation of nervous tissue: nerve growth factor, neurotrophic factor of the brain;
  • Restoration of connections between neurons.

The main pharmacological effects of Semax

Semax is a stress-protector

One of the most important additional properties of Semax is its stress-protective activity. The drug helps the body to cope with stress of any nature. Semax suppresses the development of distress damage to target tissues – nervous, cardiovascular, and immune, preventing the development of adverse morphological and biochemical changes in them.

Adaptogenic action of Semax in unfavorable conditions

Clinical studies have shown that Semax maintains the physical and mental performance of a person in uncomfortable external conditions, for example, when the ambient temperature drops or in a rarefied atmosphere high in the mountains. This effect is stipulated by the equalization of the fluctuations in the work of the mediator systems of the brain and the suppression of lipid peroxidation (LPO).
When using Semax in both unhealthy and healthy people, the work of nerve centers and nerve pathways is optimized, energy metabolism in nerve cells improves, and cognitive functions are enhanced. At the same time, Semax does not have any negative effect on the cardiovascular system.

Anti-asthenic effect of Semax®

Semax has a powerful anti-asthenic effect, and asthenia is the main component of the chronic fatigue syndrome. It is manifested by rapid fatigue, difficulty in formulating thoughts, emotional lability, sleep disturbance, difficulty waking up in the morning, etc. The action of Semax improves mental and physical performance, which is always reduced in chronic fatigue syndrome.

Pharmacokinetics: way through the body

  • Semax enters directly to the brain cells from the cerebral mucosa using perineural transport along the sensory (olfactory) nerves, bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB);
  • High speed of action – Semax is found in brain cells no later than 5 minutes after an administration, the maximum concentration is reached after 30 minutes;
  • Long-term action – the active concentration of Semax in the brain remains stable high for 20-24 hours;
  • No side effects from interactions with other drugs;
  • Convenient and painless introduction.

Under the action of aminopeptidase enzymes, the Semax peptide breaks down into its constituent parts – in particular, the Met-Glu-His-Phe tetrapeptide and the Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide. The molecules formed as a result of Semax transformation have their own therapeutic effect, being a catalyst for the natural processes in the body. Subsequently, peptides are broken down into separate amino acids, which are included in metabolic processes as absolutely natural for the body.


Safety profile of Semax and possible side effects

Semax has a long history of practical use, since the 1990s. The drug has undergone preclinical and clinical trials; its efficacy and safety have been confirmed by a large number of scientific publications. Semax is stated to be one of the safest medications in Russia and worldwide. Over more than 17 years of its case history no major side effects or symptoms of overdose have been recorded except from rare cases of mild irritation of the nasal mucosa.
Semax studies have shown that:

  • The drug does NOT cause withdrawal syndrome;
  • It does not negatively affect the nervous, cardiovascular and respiratory systems;
  • The drug doesn’t have an impact on the emotional state in healthy people; neither does Semax cause an increased feeling of depression or anxiety.

Is Semax compatible with other drugs?

Semax nootropic does not interact with most medications, given its chemical structure (heptapeptide is a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone, completely devoid of hormonal activity), the rate of absorption and the rate of entry into the blood, as well as the intranasal route of administration.

Is it safe to give Semax to children?

Semax is known to be safe for use in children. In Russia the drug is included in the list of specialized medical aid for retinopathy of prematurity. During clinical trials Semax was given to children as young as several months old to treat perinatal brain injuries and it demonstrated safety and efficacy [9].
Semax 0.1% has a good practical history of treating ADHD. Due to its properties it helps to inhibit manifestations of ADHD, encouraging better child’s adjustment at school. Semax is known to increase diligence, it has a positive impact on the retention of new information and it decreases emotional instability of a child.
However according to the current official instructions it is contraindicated to give the drug to children younger than 7 y.o. Still it is known that more than half of all drugs that are used in pediatrics are actually contraindicated for children. Their use is prescribed by the attending pediatric health care provider. Until there are no changes in the official instructions the use of the medication in children must be carried out under professional advice and supervision only.

Can I use Semax along with drinking alcohol?

Semax does not interact with alcohol, so the concurrent use of the two is acceptable. When taking Semax, alcohol intoxication occurs later and with higher doses of alcohol, and Semax also reduces the morning symptoms of alcohol intoxication.


Semax and Hair Loss

Can the administration of Semax lead to hair loss?

Several community members report on Reddit that they had hair-loss and hair thinning problems, and they link these issues to the administration of Semax. There is no officially proven data or research in the Russian language supporting that such a correlation is likely to exist. Neither such cases are reported on the Russian-speaking forums in discussions devoted to Semax.
Still hair-loss can be caused by an increase of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in people, who are prone to baldness. There are many a number of studies linking an impact of BDNF levels on hair cycle control. For instance, according to this study, Neurotrophic factors, especially BDNF, may be important in mediating the effects of androgens on hair follicles, serving as a negative regulatory control signal.
We can speculate that the reason for the existence of such reports on Reddit and no information in Russian is that on Reddit community and in Russia Semax is used differently. On Reddit members often administer Semax at higher doses for a longer period of time, use stronger versions, use subcutaneous route of administration. This assumption is supported by the review of a redditor who stated that “Semax caused hair loss till lowered dosage“. It also very likely that they also use other nootropics which can lead to a substantially higher level of BDNF over a longer period than just when using Semax on-label. Here is an anecdotal report describing hair loss at different Semax dosages.


International recognition of Semax: several Semax awards

Semax was awarded three gold medals at ‘Eurekа’ International Exhibition of Innovation, Research and New Technology (Brussels, 1999, 2001, 2003).

Eureka is a platform for R&D funding and coordination which is widely attended by representatives of many countries. It has deserved the right to be considered as one of the world’s leading events in the field of exhibiting modern inventions and innovations as well as their commercialization.

Eureka diploma Semax 2 Eureka diploma Semax 1 Eureka diploma Semax 3

Gold medal was given to Semax at the International Salon of Inventions (Geneva, 2004).

The International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva was first held in 1972. Since then it has become the world’s most important event exclusively dedicated to inventions, always on the lookout for new products. It operates under the patronage of the City of Geneva, and the World Intellectual Property Organization. Every year, more than 800 exhibitors from 40 countries exhibit their inventions there.
diploma-salon-of-inventions-semax

Diploma at the ‘Concours Lepine’ International Salon of Inventions was granted to Semax in Paris, 2002.

This association was created in 1901 by Louis Lepine. It was initially aimed to assure the rights of small manufacturers. The following years confirmed the success of the Salon. It is now held annually during the Paris Fair and groups together inventors from around Europe and the world.
Diploma Concours Lepine Semax


Semax 1% and Semax 0.1%: what is the difference and which one to choose?

As you can conclude from the name, Semax 10mg (or Semax 1%) is a stronger one: the concentration of the active substance is 10 times higher than in Semax 0.1%.

Semax 1%

Primary uses of Semax 10mg:

  • Faster recovery after strokes;
  • Alleviation of migraines;
  • Transient ischemic attacks.

So, the preparation is used in strokes, concussions, and other similar cases and cerebral circulation disorders. If it is instilled in the first minutes after a stroke, the lesion is said to become much less severe. Therefore, Semax 10mg is often stored in ambulances.

Semax 0.1%

This solution is commonly used by healthy people. It is a medicine made for improving memory performance, and has a complex nootropic, neurometabolic, and neurotrophic effect.
Primary uses of Semax 1mg:

  • Increasing attention during repetitive and monotonous tasks;
  • Increasing intellectual capacity in extreme circumstances;
  • Alleviating the effects of cerebrovascular diseases.

The action of the drug is sufficient for relatively healthy people. If you want to receive greater Semax benefits and effects, then instead of buying a more concentrated and expensive version, you just need to re-instill a second dose 10-15 minutes after the first dose. It’s important that the drops must be instilled on the nose mucosa surface, not in the nasopharynx.


On-label use vs off-label use: how Semax is used in Russia and how it is used in the USA

You can find information about Semax injections which some people find effective for increasing their mental performance to the utmost. Another effect of IM mode of administration is pain alleviation [7]. However if you are looking for a proven medication with the history of use and a good safety-and-effectiveness ratio you might start your journey in the world of nootropics with the original Semax nasal drops. From the perspective of treating brain disorders and improving mental performance it is better to use it according to the official instructions.


Can Semax be stored at the room temperature and if so, for how long?

How long can I keep an open bottle of Semax without it losing its effectiveness?

An open bottle of Semax can be stored as long as six months without losing its properties. Just follow the storage instructions:

  • Close the bottle;
  • Put it in the refrigerator and store at temperatures below 10°C (50°F).

How long can I keep Semax at the room temperature without damage to its effectiveness?

There is a safe preservative in the composition of Semax. That is why you can keep it at room temperatures below 30°C (86°F) for a period of up to 30 days. For longer periods of time, Semax should be stored in the refrigerator. The shelf life of a new product is 2 years if stored properly.

Is Semax going to be degraded after a long journey from Russia to the US?

No. The product contains methylparaben (0.01%), which works as a preservative and ensures longer shelf-life. It is considered safe and is frequently used in other drugs. The product is sterile and is produced in a GMP-compliant factory, which is likely to increase storage duration. This implies that if the temperature between 10°C (50°F) to 30°C (86°F) the storage duration is anywhere between 30 days to 6 months, depending on the temperature.


How to take Semax?

One bottle of Semax contains 3ml. The average Semax peptide dosage is 2-3 drops in each nostril. Semax can be taken up to 3 times per day.
With the purpose of cognitive improvement, Semax nootropic should be taken 1-2 times a day – 2 drops in each nostril – for a period of 3 to 14 days. The course can be repeated after 3-6 months.
Depending on the chosen regimen, one bottle is sufficient for a course of 3 – 10 days.

Can I use Semax drops in the evening and before going to bed?

Semax is a neuropeptide and one of its effects is regulation and normalization of the sleep-wake cycle. Taken into account the stimulating effect of the drug on the work of nerve cells, it is recommended to administer Semax before 5pm.
Nevertheless it is not a mandatory requirement because drug tolerance may vary in different people. If a patient does not have problems with falling asleep when Semax is instilled late in the evening, it is safe to use it after 5pm if necessary.

Can I use Semax as a one-time coffee replacement?

Single-time administration for an increase of intellectual capacities is possible. The dosage regimen of Semax® 0.1% for that purpose is the following: 3 drops in each nasal passage 2 times in the morning with a 15-minute interval. It is advisable to take another dose during the daytime.

How to take Semax during finals/exams?

Unlike many other nootropics Semax stimulates all three core processes of memory: encoding, storage and recall. The main effect of Semax is the increase of mental performance.
It is recommended to begin taking Semax 0.1% 10 days before the finals start, 3 drops in each nasal passage 2 times a day for 10 days.

Can I use Semax every day for a longer period of time?

According to the official information there is absolutely no need to use it daily for a period of more than 2 weeks.

Semax normalises the functionality of CNS during 10-14 days. For this reason this period is the course duration. The mechanism of Semax helps to restart the broken or damaged cycle of synthesis of endogenous peptides in the CNS. Semax does not replace your own molecules instead it promotes its active synthesis in neurones. It is better to repeat the course after 3-6 months. This course duration applies also to the cases when Semax is used for strokes, traumatic brain injuries and other severe conditions. Even in cases of severe stroke the recommended duration is 10 days. For the healthy people the manufacturer also advises using Semax for 10 days, although it can be used sporadically just one day as a replacement of coffee.  Nevertheless, many community members use it for longer periods of time without any evident problems.


Where is Semax manufactured and how to ensure its quality?

Peptogen is the producer of the most popular products available in our store: Semax and Selank. Why can we trust this company? Let’s see!

About the Company

Peptogen is a Russian company that specializes in the production of drugs of a new generation, whose action is aimed at the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with the brain. Peptogen was founded in 2005 with the participation of the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The purpose of the company is the production of medicinal products developed by the Institute and the development of its own compounds and preparations.
The company develops and manufactures new-generation drugs that fully comply with the requirements of the international pharmaceutical quality standards (Good Manufacturing Practice, № GMP-0014-000019/15 from 11/03/15). The company has got a license issued by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation (№00037-LS from 30/07/2014). It is also a member of the National Association of Pharmaceutical and Medical Products Manufacturers. In 2015, Peptogen was awarded the diploma of the nominee of the national prize “Priority 2015”. The Priority 2015 award evaluates all the most modern, competitive, and efficient Russian companies in the field of import substitution. Obtaining this diploma is another proof that Peptogen is a modern pharmaceutical company, and its products are of high guaranteed quality.
The company carries out wholesale deliveries of products through leading national and regional distributors throughout Russia, such as PROTEK and KATREN.

Production

You can watch the official video from the production site of Semax:

The main production site is located on the territory of Strogino Technopark, Moscow (Russia). All the work of the Technopark is coordinated by the Department of Science, Industrial Policy and Entrepreneurship of Moscow. The structure and operation of the production department were developed with the participation of GMProject (Russia – Czech Republic) in accordance with all the requirements of the Rules for the Organization of Production and Quality Control of Drugs and based on the current Russian norms in the field of construction, fire safety and industrial sanitation.
semax production 5
In addition, all requirements for carrying out technological operations are taken into account. Production is carried out in special “clean rooms”, which completely exclude the influence of the external environment. All the microclimate parameters (humidity, temperature, pressure, etc.) are set in these rooms. The staff working in the “clean rooms” passes to the workplace through the personnel-airlock, which is designed for employees to change into working overalls. Materials, raw materials and sterilized glass vials for packing nasal drops are delivered through special active gateways for production. After the bottling site, the medicine bottles are transferred through the active gateway for labeling and packaging. At this stage, samples are taken for final chemical and microbiological analyses. After the analyses are completed, a certificate of quality is issued for a series of goods, and it is transferred to the warehouse.

Quality control

The quality control department carries out physicochemical and microbiological control in modern laboratories equipped with the latest technology. In addition, all instruments used in laboratories, in turn, are annually tested at Rostest (the largest organization of practical metrology and certification on the territory of the Russian Federation). Thus, control over the production of medicines at all stages ensures guaranteed product quality.
peptogen production-7

Main statement

The company states: “We work to save and enhance the health of people of all ages, providing the ability to use unique Russian drugs of the new generation”.


Why should I use Semax nasal drops instead of Semax nasal spray?

This is the question we often receive from our customers. In this section, we’d like to tell you why intranasal Semax is suggested by the developers.
The rapid development of medicine and pharmacology has given doctors and patients many medicines that save lives and preserve health. However, it’s not enough just to create an active substance; it’s also necessary to develop methods for its delivery to a specific spot. This aspect is especially vital in the treatment of brain diseases.
Many obstacles arise in the way of a drug molecule, including protective systems of organs, absorption of drugs by healthy cells, and so on. If the medicine is intended for the brain, then the blood-brain barrier can become such an obstacle.
The thing is that the intracerebral metabolism is very different from the metabolism in other organs, and the blood-brain barrier prevents active substances from entering the brain tissue from the blood. Therefore, the developers of the Semax peptide had to “think through” a system of rapid delivery to the affected areas of the brain. And this problem has been successfully resolved: the administration of the active substance through the nasal mucosa is the most direct and fastest way to brain cells. Semax peptide enters the brain through the olfactory nerves that directly connect the nasal mucosa to the brain, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. That’s why the drug begins to act quickly. And for that reason the developers believe that the intranasal way of administration of the drug for the treatment of brain diseases is more effective than others.
Initially Semax was used in hospitals only. And nasal drops were more convenient if a patient was bedridden. Besides in comparison to nasal sprays, nasal drops may spread over a larger area, and are often cleared faster when administered correctly [1]. Charlton and coworkers reported that nasal drops possess higher deposition in the olfactory region compared to nasal sprays if administered to the patient in a supine position, and when formulated with mucoadhesive agents it is able to reduce the time in which the formulation is cleared from the area [4].


What are the anecdotal references of using Russian Semax on Reddit r/nootropics?

There are a number of Semax reviews with some outstanding results. Namely it might be useful to read a comprehensive experience report of a person who was tracking changes and making records for several years based on regular Semax intake. Besides the author touches upon the problem of hair-loss that many people might be concerned with. The treatment brought some good results in terms of mood and memory, as the person had been previously in depression. The important thing was that the effect turned out long-term and there were no withdrawal issues.
In another post it was stated that Semax became quite an asset for treating depression, anxiety, and ADHD. In general it was said that Semax “is slightly stimulating, gives me motivation, removes much of my anxiety, and generally just improves my mood”. Among positive aspects the author mentioned absence of significant side-effects unlike products that the author had had a previous experience with.
Besides the reviews on conventional Semax you might want to get yourself acquainted with those on new forms of Semax which are still in the stage of clinical trials but some people are already using them at their own discretion. In one of such reviews a person claims that NA Semax and Semax Amidate improved their memory and general quality of life in terms of moods, motivation etc. There is also an interesting experience of a first-time user of nootropics in general who describes his/her daily sensations and findings after administering Semax Amidate.
Sometimes we also come across reviews of former drug addicts who are using Semax during the recovery period and describe some inspiring results from the treatment. In one of such reports it was claimed that the Semax nootropic helped the person to get back to a normal self and start socializing again. In yet another anecdotal reference post the authors describe their experience on a daily basis stating that Semax helped them to focus better on the daily routine.


Other forms of Semax® and their differences: N-Acetyl Semax, N-Acetyl Semax Amidate and Adamax

Several Semax derivatives have been developed lately including N-Acetyl Semax (NAS), N-Acetyl Semax Amidate (NASA), and Adamax.
NA Semax for example was synthesized in 2013 from Semax by acetic anhydride acetylation with the following HPLC purification in order to increase its stability in the biological environment. Indeed some experiments have shown that higher stability of these preparations can enhance their nootropic effect. NA Semax Amidate is one of the newest analogs of Semax. It crosses the blood-brain barrier easier than the original form of Semax and therefore is more potent. Adamax is the latest and the most potent version of Semax, hence a pretty expensive one. This is a brand new peptide with no human clinical research yet. It should be treated as a research compound, and should not be purchased based on anecdotal effect statements.
Even though retailers who sell these new forms explicitly instruct their customers that these are to be used for laboratory and academic research only, we can already read some impressive reviews on them doing wonders on humans. In general Semax derivatives like Acetyl Semax or Semax Amidate have a high potential and there is a strong need to carry on the research and trials of these forms of the original Semax as they might prove to have better bioavailability and longer half-life. But until then it’s hard to make predictions and compare these forms to the original Semax in terms of safety and general efficacy.


Why is Semax not approved in the USA by the FDA?

Please be aware that Semax nootropic is not approved by the FDA. It is hard to name the exact reason behind this phenomenon. But indeed very often we witness situations when quite effective and safe nootropics are successfully used in Central and Eastern Europe (Ukraine, Kazakhstan) and Russia, but they fail to be approved in the USA as their effectiveness is deemed insufficient enough. There can be several reasons for that:

High entry barriers for small companies

Unfortunately sometimes small- and medium-scale local producers do not always have enough funds to carry out expensive research that is required by the legislation of some countries and such companies lack the opportunity to introduce their preparations to a particular market.

Difference in criteria

Characteristics of an effective medication largely differ in Russia and the USA. In Russia a safe drug can be approved for commercialization even if it is not working for all people and not every time, while in America rules may differ. This might be true in the case of Semax nootropic. And vice versa some drugs that are widely used and approved in the US are considered highly unsafe and are strictly forbidden in Russia. For example, such drugs as Ritalin (Methylphenidate) and Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) are prohibited in Russia because its contents are conceived narcotic substances. However it is approved by the FDA in the US for treating a number of disorders including ADHD and narcolepsy.

General attitude towards products and companies from Russia

Unfortunately it is impossible to ignore politics even when it comes to aspects of human health and medicine. Currently it is rather difficult to do business and develop something in the US because of the ongoing tough political relations between the two countries.


The fact that Semax is not approved by the FDA does not mean that it’s illegal. It only means that Semax is not a scheduled chemical compound and you cannot buy it in pharmacies or drug stores in the US, UK or Australia. If a person does not have the intent to supply or resell it, Semax can be legally obtained for personal use in minor quantities in online stores or in other countries, for example in Russia.
As for the customs there are usually no issues with parcels containing nootropics like Semax.


Semax and Selank: what are the differences?

semax and selank-2

Semax and Selank are always on the list of the most popular products in the CosmicNootropic store, but how do I choose between the two of them? For those who are still in doubt on what peptide nootropics to use and how to make the proper choice, we are going to describe their differences in brief.
Both Semax and Selank are manufactured by Peptogen. Both are peptide nootropics for the brain. However, unlike regular nootropics, they have a different mechanism of action. A specific feature of these two preparations is that they help only if there is a specific need in the central nervous system.
Semax and Selank are two very different products. Even though they are both peptides administered intranasally, they produce different effects.

  • Semax peptide is a nootropic that has pronounced stimulating effects for mental performance;
  • Selank is an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety agent) with nootropic properties, antidepressant and antiasthenic effects.

In short, if you are looking for improved focus, mild stimulation, and faster learning – Semax is your choice. Selank will be useful for those looking to release stress, relax, and improve their mood. Combining Semax and Selank is NOT contraindicated.


Semax in the treatment of Stroke and TBI

Semax in stroke and TBI

Cerebral diseases are very common nowadays and they have a tendency to grow. The consequences are numerous and may include distortion of movement, speech, cognitive functions, mental state etc. Prevention and treatment of such cases often requires multidiscipline approach of neurosurgeons, neurologists, therapists, traumatologists, radiologists and other physical specialists. In this article you will find more information on how nootropics namely Semax nasal drops can help to prevent and treat stroke and TBI.

Semax in the treatment of Stroke

Semax in the stroke treatment

Stroke is a massive destruction of brain tissue because of the blood circulation disturbance or vessel bleeding. For many, stroke becomes the life sentence. Slightest hemorrhage in the brain tissue or a blockage of the cerebral vessel can lead to irreversible impairment of motor functions, sensitivity, weakening of reflexes, loss of speech, memory, hearing.

There are two types of strokes:

  1. Ischemic stroke is a cerebral infarction. Acute failure of blood flow to the brain area against the background of the blockage of a vessel by a clot. It is characterized by a sudden impairment of brain function, often leading to disability or death. Thrombosis may occur against the background of vascular atherosclerosis or hypertension. Atrial fibrillation can provoke thromboembolism too.
  2. Hemorrhagic stroke is an acute failure in cerebral circulation with the rupture of blood vessels and cerebral bleeding, resulting in a hematoma. This type of stroke is often caused by aneurysms and hypertension. The damaging effect on neurons is more pronounced because of the pressure of the hematoma on the brain tissue, increased intracranial pressure and vasospasm, which causes additional ischemia. Consequences of this type of stroke are very severe, even after treatment.

More than 85% of all cases of vascular accidents happen because of ischemic stroke, the rest is hemorrhagic. In ischemic stroke, the prognosis is usually better due to a larger zone of ischemic penumbra, i.e. areas of living brain cells that can still be saved with the help of drug therapy, because they still retain the ability to absorb nutrients.

The causes and mechanisms of damage to the nervous tissue in ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are different. However, in both cases, damage to nerve cells is based on the disruption of their nutrition and oxygen “starvation” of the brain tissues. This serves as a trigger for the ischemic cascade – a chain of pathological processes in the nervous tissue with impaired blood flow.

Consequences of Stroke

Manifestations of the disease depend on the location and size of the damaged vessel. The larger the vessel affected by hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, the more severe the consequences. First signs of a vascular catastrophe are general symptoms of impaired brain function: confusion or loss of consciousness, movement disorders, changes and weakening of reflexes. Then the symptoms associated with damage to a specific area of the brain come to the fore: impaired limb movements, hearing, vision, speech, thinking, etc.

The treatment with drugs used in the hospital after stroke is aimed at:

  • Elimination or reduction of the causes of the development of a vascular catastrophe (surgical removal of hematoma in the brain, drug control of blood pressure, thrombosis treatment and its prevention);
  • Elimination or reduction of the consequences of stroke (restoration of nutrition, oxygen supply to neurons and neuroprotection, i.e. a set of therapeutic measures aimed at increasing the survival of nerve cells in adverse conditions).

In case of stroke, drugs and treatment methods in a hospital are selected individually, depending on the cause of the problem, the mechanism of its occurrence, concomitant diseases, etc. Neuroprotective therapy is usually provided to all patients.

Clinical studies have shown that the use of Semax 1% neuroprotector, begun at the pre-hospital stage, at home or by ambulance specialists, increases the effectiveness of further treatment in the hospital [6]. Semax 1% nasal drops help to significantly reduce mortality and the risk of disability in vascular accidents, minimizing the consequences of stroke [6].

What does Semax 1% do?

  • It’s known to activate metabolic processes aimed at protecting neurons from the consequences of the lack of oxygen;
  • Prevent the expansion of the area affected in stroke;
  • Increase the survival and recovery rate of neurons in the area of the ischemic penumbra;
  • Restore interneuronal connections, provide replacement of the functions of dead cells due to the active work of survivors;
  • Slow down the ischemic cascade, preventing the progressive death of neurons;
  • Contribute to the elimination of depression after stroke.

Dosage mode for Semax 1% in the Hospital

Суточная дозировкаДлительность приемаКоличество препарата на курс
Course duration: 10 days3 drops into each nasal passage 6 times a day6 bottles per course

One bottle contains 60 drops. Instillations must be carried out strictly on the nasal mucosa, preventing the leakage into the nasopharynx.


What do I do in a Stroke – First Aid?

Prompt treatment at the onset of the first symptoms of a stroke can prevent extensive damage to brain cells and connections between them in brain tissue. Subsequently, this will contribute to more effective restoration of brain functions during the following treatment.

First signs of stroke:

  • F – face. Facial asymmetry or drooping of the mouth corner on one side. Especially noticeable when smiling.
  • A – arm. When a patient tries to raise both hands, one arm is located lower than the other. There might be a feeling of numbness and weakness in hands.
  • S – speech. Vague or altered speech, trouble repeating simple sentences.
  • Weakness or numbness on one side of the body;
  • Blurring or loss of vision, often in one eye, restricted field of view;
  • Severe headache;
  • Unexplained weakness, staggering, loss of consciousness;
  • Face redness, vomiting;
  • T – time. If you notice ANY of the above mentioned symptoms it might be the first sign of a stroke. Any suspicion of a vascular accident requires immediate call for the ambulance.

It is necessary to start early neuroprotection in any case, as it will help to significantly reduce the consequences of the problem and reduce the risk of disability in any type of stroke. Semax 1% in this case is convenient and effective for first aid, since it is easy to use (nasal drops) even by minor family members before the ambulance arrives.

First aid in Stroke is within Everyone’s powers

  1. Sit down or lay down the person who has supposedly had a stroke;
  2. Time the onset of symptoms of a vascular catastrophe;
  3. Make sure there are no obstacles to breathing (remove dentures from a person’s mouth, loosen tight clothing).
  4. In case of loss of consciousness, lay the person on one side to avoid tongue retraction or aspiration of vomit;
  5. Start neuroprotective therapy with drugs approved by your doctor;
  6. Measure and record blood pressure if it’s possible;
  7. Do not give water or food to the person until the ambulance arrives.

In the ambulance, specialists will continue neuroprotection, and begin infusion therapy to normalize blood supply to brain cells, prevent intracranial hypertension, etc.

Dosage mode for Semax 1% at the Onset of stroke

Суточная дозировкаДлительность приемаКоличество препарата на курс
Instill every 20 minutes3 drops into each nasal passage1 bottle per course

One bottle contains 60 drops. Instillations must be carried out strictly on the nasal mucosa, preventing the leakage into the nasopharynx.


Recovery after Stroke

Recovery After Stroke

The competent use of various restorative techniques, not the least of which belongs to drug therapy, allows to return the patient who survived a stroke to an active life. Stroke rehabilitation is usually divided into two stages:

  1. Early – first 6 months;
  2. Late – the second half of the year after a stroke and later.

This is done for the convenience of drawing up the treatment plan, assessing the quality of results and predicting the completeness of recovery.

Early recovery after Stroke

Rehabilitation after stroke is a long and complex process, the early stage is aimed at restoring impaired brain functions. Treatment to restore speech, motor functions and memory includes physical therapy, classes with a speech therapist and taking a number of drugs that improve trophism and regeneration of nerve cells like Citicoline, Actovegin, Nimodipine, Cerebrolysin etc. Position of the American Stroke Association regarding the use of neuroprotective medications still remains unchanged. They state that currently there are no pharmacologically proven medications with presumably neuroprotective action which would be effective in the stroke treatment. However in Russia medical specialists have been paying close attention to neuroprotective therapy. Even though currently there is no generally approved program of neuroprotection, vast empirical experience of the use of neuroprotectors and nootropics allows their inclusion in stroke recovery process. 

Aims of early rehabilitation after a stroke:

  1. The maximum possible restoration of lost and impaired functions and minimization of the consequences of stroke.
  2. Prevention of recurrent stroke. Vascular accident makes the body more vulnerable and increases the risk of a second stroke, especially within a year after the first one. Therefore, a person who has suffered a stroke automatically falls into the risk group and needs an active recovery program as early as possible.

Where to start?

  • Drug therapy to improve nutrition and functions of nerve cells – taking neuroprotectors, neurometabolics, nootropics;
  • Drug therapy to eliminate factors predisposing to recurrent stroke – drugs against hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases;
  • Drug therapy to improve the psycho-emotional background – tranquilizers and antidepressants;
  • Physiotherapy and exercises – to establish the conduction of nerve impulses through the fibers of neurons, restore muscle strength, etc.;
  • Classes with a speech therapist to restore speech after a stroke;
  • Classes with a psychologist or psychotherapist, depending on the individual nature of post-stroke changes.

Post-stroke drug therapy

The drugs used after stroke are divided into two main types: 

  1. Neuroactive preparations – nootropics, neuroprotectors and neurometabolics, restoring the functionality of nerve cells; and
  2. Vasoactive preparations – working on blood circulation.

According to experts, the task of neuroprotective treatment is not only to protect the affected group of brain cells, but also to ensure further full functioning of the nervous tissue. Semax 1% plays a special role in rehabilitation after stroke. It simultaneously acts as a full-fledged neuroprotector, neurometabolic and nootropic, and can replace a number of drugs with mono-action. This avoids unnecessary drug burden on the patient and improves their psychological state.

Semax 1% is an effective link in rehabilitation in the early period after stroke and is involved not only in the recovery process, but also in the prevention of repeated vascular catastrophe. Thus it ensures the fulfillment of both main tasks at once. In the late recovery period, it is advisable to switch to a less potent version – Semax 0.1% [2].

How Long does it take to Recover after Stroke?

Much of the recovery process occurs during the first 3-6 months after a stroke. After the 6th month, the speed of these processes slows down. However, the restoration of functions can last up to 2 years or even longer. For example, there is a good chance of complete speech recovery after stroke if speech rehabilitation is started within the first weeks. Therefore, the early recovery period is crutial for the future of the patient: his\her ability to self-care, professional and social activity.

Dosage mode for Semax 1% at the Early stage of recovery after Stroke

Суточная дозировкаДлительность приемаКоличество препарата на курс
Course duration: 15 days2 drops into each nasal passage 2x per day2 bottles per course

One bottle contains 60 drops. Instillations must be carried out strictly on the nasal mucosa, preventing the leakage into the nasopharynx.


Late recovery after Stroke

Stroke recovery activities carried out after 6 months from the onset are called the late recovery period. If the treatment of stroke and recovery after it in the early period were started on time and carried out as fully as possible and then supplemented with measures in the late recovery period, the patient’s chances of returning to an active life will be very high.

This is a difficult task with a set of various measures which include: neuroprotection, physiotherapy and exercises, assistance of a speech therapist, psychologist and, of course, close people and family. All these measures combined will help a person get through this hard period of life easier, recover from stroke faster and return to a full-quality life.

Semax 0.1% neuropeptide is effective in the late period of recovery from a stroke due to its following properties:

  • It promotes the restoration of speech, memory, attention, and improvement of cognitive functions;
  • Increases the survival of neurons and the normalization of the functions of the nervous tissue;
  • Normalizes the work of vegetative centers;
  • Prevents the development of depression after stroke;
  • Provides restoration of the sleep / wake cycle.

Another advantage of Semax 0.1% is the convenience of its use. The dosage in the form of nasal drops is excellent for regular self-use by the patient or his/her relatives at home.

Dosage mode for Semax 0.1% at the Late stage of recovery after Stroke

Суточная дозировкаДлительность приемаКоличество препарата на курс
Course duration: 14 days4 drops into each nasal passage 3x per day5 bottles per courserepeated course in 3-6 months.

One bottle contains 60 drops. Instillations must be carried out strictly on the nasal mucosa, preventing the leakage into the nasopharynx.

Recovery must be Consistent and Comprehensive

The better the restoration of functions was in the first 3-6 months, the greater the chances of their complete return to normal in the late rehabilitation period. Important brain functions such as speech recover gradually and at different rates. In the first 6 months, the activity of reparative processes in the nervous system is maximal. For example, recovery of speech after a stroke can occur after the 5-6th month of rehabilitation, provided that a drug therapy and classes with a speech therapist were carried out along the way in courses and with regularity of at least 2-3 times a week. After six months the recovery rate slows down but still continues. Total improvement in motor skills and other functions can take several years.

Rehabilitation measures after a stroke are carried out in courses, with breaks of 1-2 months. They necessarily include:

  • Drug therapy (neuroprotectors, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, and others);
  • Physical therapy and daily physical activity (walks in the fresh air);
  • Physiotherapy (water treatments, massage, myostimulation).

To avoid a recurrent stroke, the late recovery period should include the following:

  • Control and correction of the levels of blood cholesterol derivatives (with atherosclerosis and lipid imbalance);
  • Control and correction of blood pressure;
  • Prevention of an increased risk of blood clots;
  • Protection of the nervous tissue from a new damage, improvement of the metabolism in neurons and their resistance to stress factors (neuroprotection).

This is done with the help and supervision of a medical specialist (therapist, cardiologist, neurologist), as well as with the help of prescribed medications, dietary and lifestyle changes.

Neuroprotective drugs after a stroke should be applied in courses several times a year.

Prevention of stroke as the most effective treatment

Stroke is a massive death of brain tissue because of impaired blood flow or hemorrhage. Stroke prevention is not only the treatment of major diseases, primarily hypertension and atherosclerosis, but also the preventive protection of brain cells from the effects of hypoxia and ischemia. 

How to prevent stroke?

Stroke prevention is the only way to protect yourself from severe and often irreversible consequences. Neurotrophic therapy is a reliable and affordable way to prevent the development of changes in the nervous tissue at the very initial stages.

Semax 0.1% has the properties for the prevention of stroke:

  • Optimize the metabolism in nerve cells;
  • Eliminate or reduce the incipient changes in the structure of the nervous tissue;
  • Weaken the destructive effect of concomitant diseases (atherosclerosis and others) as well as stress, and bad habits on the vascular system and nervous tissue of the brain;
  • Prevent primary disorders, as well as the aggravation of existing problems under the influence of neurotransmitters.

Clinical trials of Semax confirm that its use for the prevention of stroke in people suffering from chronic circulatory disorders in the brain reduces the risk of a vascular catastrophe by several times [5].

Dosage mode of Semax 0.1% for Prevention of stroke

Суточная дозировкаДлительность приемаКоличество препарата на курс
Course duration: 10 days3 drops into each nasal passage 2x per day2 bottles per course2 courses per year

One bottle contains 60 drops. Instillations must be carried out strictly on the nasal mucosa, preventing the leakage into the nasopharynx.

Primary and secondary prevention of stroke

Primary prevention is the prevention of the first occurrence of a cerebrovascular accident. Secondary stroke prevention includes measures to prevent new vascular catastrophes after a previous case. Early initiation of the secondary prevention is vital, as the likelihood of a second stroke increases more than 10 times in the first year after the first stroke. Semax 0.1% can be effectively used for both primary and secondary prevention of stroke in men and women.

The common cause of strokes is our lifestyle: bad habits, low physical activity, poor diet, stress, lack of sleep and day regimen violations. Another predisposing factor is the presence of chronic diseases of the heart, blood vessels, endocrine organs, etc., which are not subject to timely drug control by a doctor [1].

Therefore, preventing vascular problems must necessarily include:

  • Early detection of chronic diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension and others), regular medical examinations;
  • Medical treatment of concomitant diseases;
  • Healthy lifestyle.
  • Secondary prevention is complemented by medical methods: improving the trophism of the nervous tissue and controlling concomitant diseases and their complications. The combination of these methods can reduce the risk of recurrent vascular accidents by more than 80%.

Semax in the treatment of TBI

TBI treatment with Semax

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the result of damage to bones of the skull and brain tissue. It can be caused by bumps, falls, and accidents. TBI usually causes massive death of brain cells – neurons, and disrupts the connections between them. This type of neuronal damage is often aggravated by impaired cerebral blood flow, inflammatory reactions and edema of brain tissue.

Damage to neurons can be: 1) Primary or 2) Secondary (delayed).

Primary damage to nerve cells caused by a mechanical impulse proceeds as follows:

  • Damage to the brain tissue and bones of the skull occurs.
  • Mechanical impact causes displacement of layers of nerve cells, as well as direct damage to their membranes and processes.
  • This causes violation of the normal connections between nerve cells and an increase in intracranial pressure.
  • Damage may be accompanied by the malnutrition of the surviving neurons.
  • Temporary dysfunction or death of nerve cells may follow.

Secondary damage to brain cells occurs because the death of neurons during the primary TBI damage triggers a complex biochemical process or a cascade of reactions that provoke the expansion of the affected area with the capture of healthy cells:

  • When the brain is compressed or bruised, an inflammatory reaction, tissue edema, local disturbance of blood flow and the lack of oxygen supply to neighboring neurons develop around the damaged nerve cells.
  • These changes lead to a decrease in the functional activity and metabolism in healthy cells and to their gradual death.
  • In addition, the formation of colonies of cells inferior in function and prone to subsequent “programmed” death – apoptosis, takes place.
  • Against the background of these changes, there is a risk of a vascular damage and intracerebral hemorrhage after an injury.

The treatment of all types of TBI is aimed at prevention and elimination of the risk of such complications.

What are different types of head injuries?

The division of traumatic brain injury into types helps to choose the right treatment and to prevent consequences of the injury. According to the type of injury, TBI is divided into open and closed.

  1. Closed TBIs are those without damage to the aponeurosis and meninges.
  2. Open type includes cases with damage to these structures and fractures of the base of the skull, accompanied by the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from the nasal passage or an ear, and possible bleeding.

The severity of an injury is determined by the clinical manifestations of TBI and diagnostic examinations (head tomograms or X-rays of the skull bones). The success of the treatment and the risk of developing irreversible consequences of TBI depend on the severity of the injury.

  • The mildest clinical form of trauma is a concussion. Its symptoms include short-term loss of consciousness, headache, single vomiting and sleep disturbance etc. These and other symptoms usually disappear in 2-7 days.  Most consequences of concussion are reversible, and their treatment is based on observation, symptomatic therapy (analgesics, sedatives, etc.) and prevention of possible complications (neuroprotective agents). The treatment of concussion patients should also include bed rest for several days. The decision on hospitalization is made by the doctor after the examination of the patient.
  • Brain contusion is accompanied by more significant damage to the nervous tissue and is also divided in types according to the severity. It is determined by a set of signs: the duration of loss of consciousness, the severity of neurological symptoms (speech impairment, mental disorders, paresis, etc.), and diagnostic examinations. In case of a contusion, the treatment depends on the manifestations of the disease and on the presence of an intracerebral hematoma. If there is a hemorrhage in the brain tissue or under the lining of the brain, surgical treatment is often required. In a contusion, neuronal death can occur because of the direct destruction of brain tissue at the time of the injury, as well as under the influence of intracerebral hemorrhage and increased intracranial pressure (ICP).

Various combinations of TBI types can be observed simultaneously: contusion and compression by hematoma, contusion and subarachnoid hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and contusion, etc.

How to treat TBI and eliminate its consequences?

Modern science has proven that nerve tissue can be recovered. Therefore, treatment for traumatic brain injury should include the following tasks:

  1. Elimination of the causes of the death of nerve cells (elimination of intracranial hematomas, decrease in ICP, etc.);
  2. Suspension of the secondary damage to the brain tissue;
  3. Creation of conditions for active nutrition and oxygen supply to all areas of the brain;
  4. Stimulation of recovery processes and the formation of new neural connections.

Semax 0.1% is a neuroprotector and neurometabolic agent, the properties of which make it possible to effectively perform several of the listed tasks. Therefore, it is successfully used after different types of TBI, including concussion for the treatment and prevention of its consequences, along with other drugs prescribed by the attending physician. [9]

Dosage mode for Semax 0.1% at TBI

Суточная дозировкаДлительность приемаКоличество препарата на курс
Course duration: 14 days3 drops into each nasal passage 3x per day4 bottles per course

One bottle contains 60 drops. Instillations must be carried out strictly on the nasal mucosa, preventing the leakage into the nasopharynx.

The effects of Semax 0.1% include:

  • Acceleration of recovery from coma and amnesia;
  • Restoration of motor and sensory functions, due to the improvement of the creation of new connections between neurons instead of the lost ones;
  • Restoration of cognitive functions, improvement of attention, mental state;
  • Improvement and restoration of memory, due to the influence on all stages of the process (memorization, processing and reproduction of information);
  • Relief of post-traumatic depression;
  • Normalization of the work of vegetative centers;
  • Prevention of encephalopathy and loss of work skills.

It’s still important to note that there is no single universally effective neurometabolic agent for TBI survivors. In order to increase the effectiveness and reduce the likelihood of side effects after a TBI, the combination treatment with a wide choice of medicational options is needed depending on a particular case. The choice of the therapy is very difficult, and it depends on many clinical factors and characteristics of the drugs and should be made by the doctor.


The official drug sheets of Semax 1% and Semax 0.1%

International Non-Proprietary Name (INN): methionyl-glutamyl-histidyl-phenylalanil-prolyl-glycyl-proline.

Semax® 0.1%: nasal drops 0,1% (3 ml) | [PDF]

Semax® 1%: nasal drops 1% (3 ml) | [PDF]


Where can I buy Semax?

There are several companies where you can buy original Semax, namely:

  • Cosmicnootropic.com is a reliable supplier which has been around for over 5 years. They mainly specialize in supplying original Russian medications that otherwise would be difficult to obtain.
  • Rupharma.com is another trustworthy supplier with many positive reviews. They focus on delivering medical products from Russia, Europe and India.
  • Amazon.com vendors is a number one online store that links businesses and customers in almost all aspects of life including medications.

Let’s compare current prices and the delivery cost for Semax. Prices listed in the table below are regular as of March 2021 for one unit without any special offers or discounts.

CosmicNootropic

Rupharma

Amazon vendors

Semax® 0.1% 15 USD 16 EUR around 28 USD
Semax® 1% 65 USD 78 EUR around 69 USD
Delivery 10 USD 15 EUR free

Where Can I buy alternative Semax versions?

Limitless Life Nootropics

LimitlessLifeNootropics.com is a provider of high-quality peptides and nootropics for research applications. Their delivery cost is 8.50USD plus 7% tax.

Science Bio

Science.bio is a chemicals vendor dedicated to providing reference materials of the highest quality for life science research.

  • Semax Spray – 39.99-89.99USD. The cost of delivery varies depending on the destination address and the choice of the carrier (UPS, DHL etc.).

References

  1. Hardy JG et al (1985). Intranasal drug delivery by spray and drops. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2862235/
  2. Gusev EI, Skvortsova VI, Miasoedov NF et al (1997). Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=skvortsova%20VI%20semax
  3. Dolotov OV et al (2006). Semax, an analog of ACTH(4–10) with cognitive effects, regulates BDNF and trkB expression in the rat hippocampus. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16996037/
  4. Charlton S et al (2007). Distribution and clearance of bioadhesive formulations from the olfactory region in man: Effect of polymer type and nasal delivery device. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17223022/
  5. Tsai SJ (2007). Semax, an analogue of adrenocorticotropin (4-10), is a potential agent for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Rett syndrome. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16996699/
  6. Li B et al (2010). Neurotrophic peptides incorporating adamantane improve learning and memory, promote neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in mice.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20600002/
  7. Miasoedov NF et al (2010). Nootropic and analgesic effects of Semax following different routes of administration. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21268834/
  8. Shevchenko KV et al (2013). Stability of Semax acetyl to proteolysis in various biological media. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23652441/
  9. Samsonova TV (2013). Use of Semax in the rehabilitation treatment of infants with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during the first year of life. https://semax.ru/upload/iblock/523/523138368695e8b4b6800637f8aa18ba.pdf
  10. Tsukurova LA et al (2013). Study of the efficacy and safety of neuroprotector “Semax 1%” in patients with ischemic stroke of varying severity. https://semax.ru/upload/iblock/1ac/1ac2847b34395afc21c81c4644dc3034.pdf
  11. Medvedeva EV et al (2014). The peptide Semax® affects the expression of genes related to the immune and vascular systems in rat brain focal ischemia: genome-wide transcriptional analysis. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24661604/
  12. Inozemtsev AN et al (2016). Semax prevents learning and memory inhibition by heavy metals. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27411820/
  13. Gusev EI et al (2018). The efficacy of Semax in the tretament of patients at different stages of ischemic stroke. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29798983/
  14. Lebedeva IS et al (2018).  Effects of Semax on the Default Mode Network of the Brain. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30225715/
  15. Panikratova YR et al (2020). Functional Connectomic Approach to Studying Selank and Semax Effects. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32342318/
  16. Filippenkov IB et al (2020). Novel Insights into the Protective Properties of ACTH((4-7))PGP (Semax) Peptide at the Transcriptome Level Following Cerebral Ischaemia-Reperfusion in Rats. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32580520/
  17. Official web-site of the Russian Semax https://semax.ru/
  18. The Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation #3073-r November 23, 2020 http://tniikip.rospotrebnadzor.ru/upload/iblock/8de/8de243814654508812723d4c01ee3d7b.pdf

Disclaimer

This article is intended for informational purposes only. All medical preparations must be taken upon the doctor’s advice and under medical supervision.


Discussion

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Semax: New Unique Info and detailed FAQ from CosmicNootropic

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